Articles

  1. SEISMIC RESPONSES OF SHORT GROUPED-PILES EMBEDDED IN LIQUEFIABLE SANDY SOILS DURING EARTHQUAKES Download Article

    Chung-Jung Lee, Wen-Yi Hung, Chen-Hui Tsai, Yi-Chun Tu, Chin-Chen Huang, Yuan-Chieh Wu and Meng-Hsiu Hsieh
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1218-1225 )
    • No of Download = 961

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    A series of centrifuge shaking table tests was conducted to simulate the seismic responses of grouped-piles that was embedded in liquefiable sandy soils and subjected to earthquake loading. The grouped-piles connected with a pile cap were used to support 4 sets of model dry storage spent fuel casks. Different test conditions including the elevations of pile cap, and the grouped-piles embedded in the dry and saturated sand beds with the different levels of groundwater table are reported. Using pre-shaking the profile of shear wave velocity in the tested sand bed and the natural frequencies of both the sand bed and the grouped-piles were determined. The lower shear wave velocities and the lower natural frequencies were measured for the saturated sand bed, but no obvious difference in the natural frequency of the grouped-piles system with the pile cap embedded in the sand deposit were observed. The grouped-piles with the pile cap exposed to the ground surface and embedded in the saturated sand bed have the lowest natural frequency. The magnitudes of bending moment along pile depths would increase with the increases of base shaking. The lowest bending moment were measured for the grouped–piles with the pile cap embedded in the dry sand bed while the largest bending moments were observed for the grouped–piles with the pile cap embedded in the saturated sand bed and the groundwater table at the surface.

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF SLOPES WITH HIGHER RISK TO SLOPE FAILURES BASED ON INFORMATION PROCESSING TECHNIQUES Download Article

    Shinichi Ito, Kazuhiro Oda, Keigo Koizumi and Yohei Usuki
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1226-1231 )
    • No of Download = 1147

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    In recent times, the sediment disasters, such as slope failures, debris flows, and landslides, caused by typhoons or cloudbursts have occurred in Japan. The progression of global warming will increase the scale of typhoons and cloudbursts striking the Japanese Islands, and there is a concern that the frequency of sediment disasters may increase. Therefore, it is important to identify slopes with a higher risk to sediment disasters to prevent future disasters. In this study, a method based on artificial neural networks and mathematical statistics was used to identify such slopes. In the proposed method, the self-organizing map (SOM), cluster analysis, and Hayashi’s second method of quantification are combined. The proposed method was applied to the data gathered from periodical inspections of road slopes. In the results, slopes with a higher risk to slope failure were identified and ranked according to their risk.

  3. PERFORMANCE OF LIME-TREATED MARINE CLAY ON STRENGTH AND COMPRESSIBILITY CHRACTERISTICS Download Article

    Nor Zurairahetty Mohd Yunus, Aminaton Marto, Faizal Pakir, Khairulanam Kasran, Mohd Akmal Azri Jamal, Siti Norafida Jusoh and Norliana Abdullah
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1232-1238 )
    • No of Download = 1253

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    The presence of marine clay in Iskandar Malaysia Region, Nusajaya has caused expensive solutions in the construction of structures and roads. Alternatively, soil treatment is suggested to increase the strength of the unsuitable material to meet the constructions requirement for foundation and also to achieve the specifications for development work. In this study, a series of laboratory test has been conducted to determine the potential of lime to stabilize marine clay to form the basis of a strong, reliable land for construction of roads and building. Testing program involves obtaining specimens of marine clays from various locations at Iskandar Malaysia Region, followed by laboratory tests to determine the physical and engineering properties with and without the addition of lime. The proportions of hydrated lime added are 3%, 6% and 9% to the untreated marine clay and tested at 7 and 28 days curing periods. Results show an increase in strength with increasing lime content. In addition, strength also increases significantly as early as 7 curing days and continues for 28 curing days. In agreement with the strength tests, compression characteristics improved with increasing lime content and as time prolonged. Hence, lime is successful and considered effective to improve the strength and compressibility behavior of Marine clay.

  4. EUTROPHICATED SEDIMENT REMEDIATION USING SHELL FRAGMENT AS REGIONAL UNUSED RESOURCES FOR NUTRIENTS ELUTION CONTROL Download Article

    Kazuhito Murakami, Saki Agatsuma, Michio Gomyo and Akiko Inoue-Kohama
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1239-1244 )
    • No of Download = 682

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    Dominant species of Aoko, Anabaena, has a “function of nitrogen fixation from air”, so if there is even phosphorus in water, they can multiplicate explosively. This study aimed the removal of phosphorus by shells of regional unused resources as eutrophication countermeasure in Hasunuma Seaside Park Pond. As result, sprinkling crushed shells was essential to the removal of phosphorus and the increase control of phytoplankton such as Anabaena spiroides. Inhibition rate of phosphorus showed a high percentage with much quantity of dispersion. At the N/P ratio, all dispersion system showed the higher value in comparison with no-treated systems. Hardness showed a high percentage with much quantity of dispersion because of Ca2+ was eluted into water from shell body. The dominant species of phytoplankton was changed to Chlorella sp. and the growth of the phytoplankton was controlled until fifth or tenth day by Ca2+ eluted from shells fragment.

  5. STUDY ON THE USE OF OBSTRUCTING OBJECTS TO DIFFUSE FLOOD WATER VELOCITY DURING ROAD CROSSING Download Article

    Abdul Naser Abdul Ghani, Ahmad Hilmy Abdul Hamid and Nursriafitah Kasnon
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1245-1249 )
    • No of Download = 711

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    Laboratory experimental investigations were conducted to identify suitable shape and dimension of objects as well as its capability to reduce flow velocity. The first stage of the study was to identify suitable shape and its arrangement. In this test a scale of 1:20 was used in a flow table experiment. The water flow pattern was recorded focusing on the distance and amplitude of the pattern as water flow pass the obstructing objects. The second stage of the investigation involved a hydraulic model investigation. In this investigation, the velocity reduction effects of the selected objects shapes were studied. The results are classified into three distinguishable patterns of diffusion. Two objects shapes and arrangements selected for use in the hydraulic model investigation indicated its capability to reduce flow velocity satisfactorily consistent with the flow pattern in the preliminary findings.

  6. WOOD-TILE QUALITY COMPOSITE BOARD FROM COCO COIR DUST AND UNPLASTICIZED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE WASTE MATERIALS Download Article

    Hermie M. del Pilar, Monesse Andrea Z. Antonio, Maricar A. Ilagan and Julius E. Seva
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1250-1256 )
    • No of Download = 1596

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    Gearing on sustainable technology, two waste materials, coco coir dust and UPVC were utilized to produce a wood-tile quality, high density composite board material. Adopting the technology in producing fiberboards, the use of UPVC as binder to combine with dried coir dust (5% moisture content) was investigated. Three mix ratios of UPVC: Coir Dust were used: 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40. The produced board from each combination was then subjected to mechanical and physical property tests. Their properties were compared using the analysis of variance. The mixing process involves the use of two-roll mill machine operating at 204OC while the pressing involves the heat press machine at 108OC and pressure of 450 psi for 3minutes. The finished products highlight a glossy brown surface comparable to a wood tile, and can be readily manufactured without the additional veneer coating. Physical properties of the 3 ratios were tested against ordinary board. All 3 ratios exhibit 0% Water Absorption (WA) and Thickness Swelling (TS) while ordinary board showed 28.5% WA and 16.5% TS. Mechanical tests for the 80:20 ratio yielded a highest mean value of 55KPa·m on Impact Strength (IS) and 68.85MPa on Modulus of Rupture (MOR) while ordinary boards yielded 50KPa·m on IS and 7.51MPa on MOR. The least mean on different properties of the bio-composite material were compared with the means of commercial board product. This study found that the PVC-Coir Dust combination exhibited highly satisfactory performance based on the physical and mechanical properties as compared to the ordinary board

  7. BEHAVIOUR OF PRESTRESSED GEOTEXTILE-REINFORCED FINE SAND BED SUPPORTING AN EMBEDDED SQUARE FOOTING Download Article

    Shailendra Kumar, C. H. Solanki and B. K. Pandey
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1257-1262 )
    • No of Download = 661

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    This paper presents the results of laboratory model tests carried out on embedded square footing supported on geotextile reinforced sand bed. The effect of reinforcement with geotextile were studies through a series of laboratory model tests with different size of geotextile and depth of placement below footing. The effects of prestressing the geotextile on the strength improvement and settlement reduction of a reinforced sand bed are also being investigated. The model steel tank of size 120 cm x 50 cm x 50 cm and square footing of 10 cm are used. The study also highlights the effect of size of geotextile and placement of geotextile below footing on load-settlement characteristics.

  8. SEASONAL VARIATION OF THE ALIEN PLANTS INVATION INTO RIVER ECOSYSTEM Download Article

    Michiko Masuda and Fumitake Nishimura
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1263-1270 )
    • No of Download = 569

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    Many alien species have invaded into fluvial environment. The invasion of alien species affect seriously damages to the biological diversity. Authors pointed out that invasion of alien plants is mainly occurred in spring, and recommended that the improvement of river environment should be done from summer to autumn in order for prevent invasion of alien species. However, there is little report about the phenomenon when the improvement of river was occurred from summer to autumn. So we investigated how the vegetation recovered at the improvement river area with no burial seeds in summer. During the investigation we removed all emerging seedlings in the half of the investigation area and always kept as the bare ground. As a result four of the following became clear, 1) seedlings of alien species could not easily invade bared area in summer, 2) only some seedlings of a few native species can be established in summer, 3) the vegetation by native species that recovered in summer prevented the invasion of alien species, 4) seedling removal hasten the invasion of alien species. The character that the seeds are able to emerge anytime and anywhere like the alien plants species are advantageous at the fluvial environment where rising of the river sometimes occurs. But the condition of river bed in summer is too severe to invade open area. Only a few native species can established their seedlings.

  9. THE ROLE OF BLOCK RATIO AND LAYER THICKNESS ON ROCK SLOPES MOVEMENT STYLE Download Article

    A. K. Alzo’ubi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1271-1277 )
    • No of Download = 762

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    In rock slopes, toppling movements are very common. The layers thicknesses and block ratio relative to slopes height might determine the type of slope movements and the style of toppling. In this paper, a numerical parametric study was conducted to evaluate the effect of block ratio and block thickness, in both crystalline and sedimentary rock formations, on the style of rock slopes movement in slopes prone to toppling. The mechanical defects or joints of rocks can be either random or well defined sets depends on the rock mass origin, metamorphic, igneous, or sedimentary. Different styles of movements were observed numerically in this study ranging from block toppling to rock falls. The styles of movement were also compared to the ones observed in the field. The results showed that the style movement is time dependent and three types of movement can be observed in one slope.

  10. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS AND LIFE CYCLE COSTS OF CONVENTIONAL CUT AND FILL ROAD CONSTRUCTION Download Article

    Hideyuki Ito, Koichi Yamanaka, Shoma Nehashi, Atsushi Fukuda and Kunio Minegishi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1278-1282 )
    • No of Download = 795

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    In recent years, new composite geomaterials have been developed to reduce the weight of road construction materials in soft ground and mountainous areas in Japan that are prone to ground liquefaction and landslide. These new composite geomaterials have some problems, such as increased construction time, cost, and adverse impacts on the environment. As a result, conventional geomaterials are usually chosen over composite geomaterials in Japan. However, there are few researches that analyzed the environmental impacts (for example, CO2, NOx, and SOx emissions as well as total life-cycle cost) of traditional and composite geomaterials quantitatively from the perspective of LCA (life cycle assessment). Therefore, the purpose of this research is to apply a LCA to estimate the total emissions of CO2, NOx, and SOx as well as the total life cycle costs of three embankments—one constructed by the conventional method (cut and fill), one with lightweight geomaterial mixed with expanded polystyrene beads, and one by the expanded polystyrol construction method. All three embankments are located on a mountain road in Japan.

  11. DETERMINATION OF THE FREEZING EFFECT ON UNCONFINED COMPRESSION STRENGTH AND PERMEABILITY OF SATURATED GRANULAR SOILS Download Article

    Burak Evirgen, M. Inanc Onur, Mustafa Tuncan and Ahmet Tuncan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1283-1287 )
    • No of Download = 1106

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    Artificial ground freezing usage gradually rises in civil engineering applications as a soil supporting system. However, many unknown fundamental parameters have been still waiting discovery, especially for granular soil. Granular soil can not carry its own weight during unconfined conditions. If water turns to ice that locates in the soil pores, it proceeds as a cementitious material. First step of design phenomena is to identify the material properties in geotechnical engineering. Within this scope, unconfined compression tests (UCC) and permeability tests are performed on frozen granular soils subjected to 1, 3 and 7 day-freezing periods to observe time effect. Experimental procedure are applied totally on 12 sand and gravel type of specimens with saturated cases after freezing application in the CDF/CIF freezing thawing machine. Stress - strain behaviors, ultimate load capacities and permeability of specimens are determined. This method will be used while taking undisturbed granular soil samples from the construction site.

  12. A BEHAVIOURAL STUDY OF DYNAMIC SOIL STRUCTURE INTERACTION FOR PILED RAFT FOUNDATION WITH VARIABLE SUB SOILS BY TIME HISTORY FEM MODEL Download Article

    S.J. Shukla, Desai A.K. and Solanki C.H.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1288-1292 )
    • No of Download = 1491

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    India is the developing country and in this age of rapid urbanization, geotechnical issues in construction of tall buildings are a major problem. These act as strong barriers against the construction of tall buildings in urban areas. Piled raft foundation is the type of foundation which can be used for the construction of tall buildings safely and economically. The piled raft foundation system has recently been widely used for many structures, especially high rise buildings. In this foundation, the piles play an important role in settlement and differential settlement reduction, and thus can lead to economical design without compromising the safety of the structure. Foundation rafts are analyzed as a plate on elastic foundation with the representation of the foundation media using the Winkler idealization. The elastic constant of the Winkler springs is derived using the sub-grade modulus. Perusal of literature reveals that very few investigations were done on the effect of variable sub soil on the behavior of structures supported on pile raft foundations. So in this research, an iterative dynamic analysis was performed using SAP2000 program to carry out three dimensional time history analysis of non-linear soil-foundation-building models under a great earthquake ground motions. The interaction between the soil and structure is represented by Winkler spring model. The obtained results confirmed that the dynamic characteristics of soil structure system should be recommended for conservative nonlinear seismic response of the high building since it mitigates of earthquake hazards.

  13. OPTIMIZING WATER UTILIZATION FROM A WINDPUMP-DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR HIGH-VALUE CROP PRODUCTION Download Article

    Nguyen Thanh Nghi, Helen F. Gavino and Manuel Jose C. Regalado
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1293-1299 )
    • No of Download = 1006

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    Although the windmill has been used for water pumping for many centuries, its development and application is limited due to high investment cost. Using windmill instead of diesel engine to drive a water pump reduces dependence on fossil fuel and mitigates greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, this study was conducted to optimize water use from a windpump coupled to a drip irrigation system. Performance of the windpump-drip irrigation system was also evaluated based on technical and economic feasibility. Water from the windmill combined with suction pump and piston pump was applied to vegetable crops in a 0.18-ha area through a drip irrigation system. Results showed that average daily discharge of the windpump was 9.2 m3/day (24 hours) at 1.6 m/s daily wind speed. It varied from 0.7 at 1.6 m/s to 22.1 m3/day at 2.7 m/s. Overall efficiency of the windmill-suction pump system varied from 23.1 to 6.1% corresponding to wind speed of 1.7 to 4.3 m/s, respectively. With total available water supply from the windpump and rainfall of 17.1 m3/day, optimum service area of the system would be 0.81 ha, 0.95 ha, 0.65 ha, and 0.32 ha for tomato, eggplant, onion, and rice crops, respectively. Economic analysis showed that with three tomato crops per year in 0.81 ha, annual net income would be PhP38,960. Financial rate of return was 19% with a payback period of 9 years. Thus, the investment for the windpump-drip irrigation system would be feasible only for high-value crops

  14. PERFORMANCE AND PREDICTION OF DREDGED CLAY RECLAIMED LAND BY VACUUM CONSOLIDATION METHOD Download Article

    Ikeda H., Kawano M., Kiyoyama T., Yamamoto S., Takase E., Katagiri M., Ohishi K. and Yoshifuku T.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1300-1307 )
    • No of Download = 1069

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    One of the methods for increasing the capacity of disposal pond for dredged marine clay is the volume reduction in already reclaimed dredged clay ground. In the vacuum consolidation method, the pore water in the reclaimed clay ground is squeezed by vacuum pumps, and ground surface settles. In this paper, the performance of reclaimed land with dredged clay by the vacuum consolidation method is introduced, and is compared with the prediction of consolidation behavior at the design. In addition, the back analysis of settlement behavior of such reclaimed ground is performed, and the design procedure of vacuum consolidation for reclaimed ground with dredged clays is proposed.

  15. REHABILITATION WORKS IN QUEENSLAND USING FOAMED BITUMINOUS STABILISATION Download Article

    Lokanantham R. Logitharan, Kathirgamalingam Somasundaraswaran and Lothi M. Ramanujam
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1308-1315 )
    • No of Download = 827

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    Adapting foamed bitumen stabilisation is considered as the most cost effective approach in Queensland to expedite the rehabilitation works, especially after the major flood devastation in 2011. This paper presents the key changes made as well as the recent practices adapted during a road rehabilitation work to increase the return from the investment. In this process, initially, the designed width for subgrade lime stabilisation has been modified to minimize the moisture entry into the pavement. The dry modulus, three days soaked resilient modulus and retain modulus were used to identify the suitable base material for construction. In addition, a trail site was used to examine the bulking effect on base layer when adding lime as secondary agent, which helped to estimate the exact depth for foamed stabilisation. A few innovative techniques such as a two-layer compaction to effectively condense stabilised subgrade, was used to improve the quality of the outcome were also highlighted.

  16. INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZATION ON NATIVE PLANTS AND EXOTIC PASTURE GRASSES ON THE FASCINED LANDSLIDE SLOPES IN MIKURA-JIMA ISLAND, JAPAN Download Article

    Teruo Arase and Tetsuo Okano
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1316-1322 )
    • No of Download = 862

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    Typhoon 9512 hit Mikura-jima Island, Izu Islands, Japan in 1995, producing many landslide slopes. Torino-o No.3 landslide slope was fascined with fallen trees and planted with seedlings of native species (Alnus sieboldiana tree and Miscanthus condensatus grass) as part of vegetation recovery efforts, and was subsequently seeded by helicopter in 2002 with exotic pasture grasses. To elucidate the influence of fertilization on the growth of transplanted seedlings of native species, exotic pasture grasses and newly invading trees and herbs, we designated seven plots in 2004, and surveyed vegetation every summer until 2013: four fertilized plots (fowl manure applied at 0.2 g/m2) and three non-fertilized plots. The native species seedlings grew steadily irrespective of fertilization, but with self-thinning in A. sieboldiana. Exotic pasture grasses decreased gradually and almost disappeared in 2013. Fertilizing temporarily enhanced the growth of some species, but seemed to induce species competition, judging from the delay of invading of native trees and the increase of climbing plants in herbaceous layer in fertilized plots.

  17. HEAVY METAL DESORPTION STUDIES ON THE ARTIFICIALLY CONTAMINATED AL-QATIF SOIL Download Article

    Arif Ali Baig Moghal, Mosleh Ali Al-Shamrani and Waleed M Zahid
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1323-1327)
    • No of Download = 922

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    In this study, the relevance of mineralogy on the desorption capacities of Cu+2 and Pb+2 from artificially contaminated Al-Qatif soil has been investigated. The desorption capacities of both Cu+2 and Pb+2 using ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) as decontaminating solution are determined. The effect of decontaminating solution dosage and liquid to solid ratio on desorption capacities are examined. Under identical conditions, the removal efficiency of Pb+2 ions are found to higher than Cu+2 ions. This has been attributed mainly due to the differences in surface charges of specific retention sites which hold these metal ions. Further, the heavy metal ion solubility and surface properties of respective clay minerals decide the desorption rate in soil systems as the pore fluid pH reaches the heavy metal solubility range or point of zero charge of the clay minerals. These studies provide valuable insight with regards to their applicability as potential barrier materials for containing industrial leachates.

  18. BRIDGE SCOUR MONITORING BY COUPLING FACTOR BETWEEN READER AND TAG ANTENNAS OF RFID SYSTEM Download Article

    M. I. Ibrahimy and S. M. A. Motakabber
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1328-1332)
    • No of Download = 655

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    Bridge scour is an erosion which removes stream bed or bank material from bridge foundation due to flowing of water. Too much bridge scour is risky for the bridge foundation and causes sudden bridge to collapse without any warning. It implements significant impacts on the traveling public safety as well as the economy of the country. A number of parameters are associated with scour, thus different types of sensors are required to measure the individual affecting factor. A complex and expensive data logging from sensor and electronic communication systems are used to monitor the bridge scour in real-time to ensure the integrity of bridge structure. A high frequency band (13.56MHz) radio frequency identification (RFID) system has been proposed and that has been validated by simulation using PSpice software for the direct scour monitoring scheme, which is simple and low-cost. A number of passive RFID tags have been piled surrounding the bridge foundation which is continuously detected by the FRID reader. The erosion of the river bed carries out the RFID tag from nearby the bridge structure. As a result, the RFID reader can directly detect the absence of the tags as well as the amount of the scouring. Since, the design structure of the RFID system is simple, it is highly robust and easy to implement. The system can easily be implemented with an existing bridge structure and a wireless telemetry can be used to send the real-time data from the proposed system to a desktop computer in the monitoring lab.