Articles

  1. DEVELOPING A DECISION-MAKING MODEL FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS STRENGTHENING Download Article

    Ahmed Hassan and Usama Hamed Issa
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (1333-1341 )
    • No of Download = 999

    Abstract

    close

    Steel tubes (ST) have long been used to strengthen RC columns, while the application of CFRP for this purpose is a recent practice. Both techniques have many advantages and shortcomings. In this paper, a multi-criteria decision-making model is introduced to quantify the selection of one of the two techniques. Four criteria and 28 factors affecting them are identified to develop the model. The selected criteria are cost, strengthening efficiency, durability, and project scope achievement. The model is fed by data collected from execution activities, field surveys and previous laboratory test results. The model has been validated and applied to a real case study. The detailed discussion and analysis indicated that many features support the use of CFRP in the investigated case study. Furthermore, the analysis emphasised that the strengthening efficiency and durability decide the selection while project scope achievement criterion is insignificant compared to other criteria. Ultimately, the obtained results from the case study provide the construction market with a decision that supports the use of the CFRP by 56 %, while the use of ST is only supported in 44 %.

  2. DISTRIBUTION OF LANDFILL BY GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION METHODS AT ILLEGAL INDUSTRIAL WASTES DISPOSAL SITE Download Article

    Minoru Yamanaka, Tomoaki Hachimura and Shuichi Hasegawa
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (1342-1347)
    • No of Download = 926

    Abstract

    close

    Serious environmental pollution has caused by illegal disposal of industrial wastes in Kagawa Teshima Island, Kagawa Prefecture, Japan. For restitution of Teshima, a distribution of the industrial waste by the drilling survey by past administration’s research became clear roughly. But since the wastes was buried partially such as a pot into the sandy soil layer under the waste layer, it is necessary to investigate in detail the thickness of the wastes as removal of the waste layer progressed. In this paper, the surface wave prospecting, the microtremor, the Electromagnetic method (EM) sounding and the Continuous wave radar sounding, which is new geophysical exploration methods, were carried out at the illegal industrial wastes disposal site for the purpose of estimating the thickness of the waste layer with sufficient accuracy.

  3. BEHAVIOUR OF AN EPDM GEOMEMBRANE 18 YEARS AFTER ITS INSTALLATION IN A WATER RESERVOIR Download Article

    Manuel Blanco, Francisca Castillo, Nathalie Touze-Foltz, Bernat Amat and Escolástico Aguiar
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (1348-1352 )
    • No of Download = 530

    Abstract

    close

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the durability of an EPDM geomembrane installed 18 years ago in the water reservoir of El Boquerón (Canary Islands, Spain). To do so, samples were regularly taken from different places of the water reservoir. Samples were laboratory tested as follows: foldability at low temperature, static and dynamic puncture resistance, Shore-A hardness, tensile strength and elongation at break, seam strength and microscopic techniques. The obtained results confirm the EPDM geomembrane is still in good condition.

  4. ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF MASONRY REVETMENTS IN PLANT BIODIVERSITY Download Article

    Taizo Uchida, Masaaki Furuno, Takashi Minami, Sampei Yamashita, Tadashi Uchiyama, Teruo Arase and Daisuke Hayasaka
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (1353-1359 )
    • No of Download = 1004

    Abstract

    close

    The objective of this research is to evaluate the importance of vegetation of retaining walls made of natural stones (i.e., masonry revetment) in plant biodiversity. In this paper, plant compositions and the characteristics of masonry revetments were surveyed in terraced fields in Toho Village, southern Japan. In total, 43 families and 88 species were recorded in the spaces of the masonry revetments. Of these 88 species, 68 (77.3%) were herbaceous, excluding 13 (14.8%) ferns, and 7 (8.0%) species were woody plants. Native species accounted for 69 (78.4%) of the 88 species. Furthermore, numerous species not found in the horizontal environments around the terraced fields were also seen in the spaces of the masonry revetments. From these results, the authors consider that masonry revetments provide a habitat for plants and therefore contribute toward the conservation of plant biodiversity on a local scale.

  5. PREDICTION OF INFILTRATION ON SMALL SCALE FIELD TESTS PERFORMANCE IN COMPACTED LOESSIC SOIL Download Article

    Aiassa Martínez Gonzalo, Arrúa Pedro and Eberhardt Marcelo
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (1360-1364 )
    • No of Download = 787

    Abstract

    close

    Silty loess soils are widely spread on Córdoba city, Argentina. The ability to use this soil improved by compaction on embankments it is of interest to different types of local constructions, with purpose of reducing settlements and infiltration. This work research the water infiltration through compacted silty soils from Córdoba by small scale field test. Four small test embankments were constructed on natural soil with different compaction conditions using local silty soils. The site was characterized by typical geotechnical laboratory and field tests. The infiltration tests were performed using double ring infiltrometers for a time period around of 2 months. Results were used to field permeability estimated (kf) and these were compared with laboratory results (kl). Conclusions regarding the behavior observed in the field are presented.

  6. SMALL WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT CONTROL: WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT USING STORAGE SYSTEMS Download Article

    Sandhya Rao Poleneni and Enos C. Inniss
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (1365-1369 )
    • No of Download = 462

    Abstract

    close

    Disinfection, a vital part of a drinking water treatment, using chlorine is the most widely practiced process in the world. The Stage-2 Disinfectant and Disinfection By-Product regulations force water utilities in the US to be more concerned with their distributed water quality. Compliance requires changes to their current operational strategy. Storage system management is an important part of the operational strategy of small scale utilities. This study quantifies changes in DBP formation and chlorine decay in storage systems under varying operational parameters such as mixing, contact time, and water movement using a physical model (Pipe Loop) of a distribution system. Effective operation of storage systems can yield greater than 30% decrease in DBP formation in distribution systems and maintain chlorine residual for a 50% longer period.

  7. CORRELATING BENDER ELEMENT AND ELECTROMAGNETIC MEASUREMENTS TO EVALUATE CLAY’S STIFFNESS Download Article

    Chee-Ming Chan and Mohd Zarar Mohd Jenu
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (1370-1374 )
    • No of Download = 611

    Abstract

    close

    Soil’s stiffness is usually measured in the laboratory in an indirect manner, such as by derivation from the gradient of a stress-strain plot. It requires numerous tests and may be compounded by errors from the original measurement itself. As such, the bender element test has become rather popular among researchers for determining the small strain moduli of soils with minimal / temporal disturbance to the specimens. This paper examines the possibility of relating the bender element data with the dielectric constant obtained from the same soil specimen using an electromagnetic test setup. As both tests are non-destructive, they can be easily repeated on the same specimen over a period of time without the necessity of duplicate specimens. A clay sample was used in the present study, with varying water content corresponding to different 1-dimensional compression stresses. It was generally found that the resulting stiffness change was detectable from both the shear wave velocity (vs) obtained from the bender element tests, as well as the dielectric constant (ε) of the electromagnetic measurements, with fairly good correspondence between the two. These results shed light on the possibility of relating relevant geotechnical parameters with both the measurements for establishing a unique set of signatures for stiffness monitoring and determination in soils.

  8. LANDFILL WASTE WARTER TREATMENT BY APPLICATION OF PULSED HIGH VOLTAGE Download Article

    Akio Takigawa, Keiichi Kato, Takashi Nakajima, Ryota Serizawa and Hiromu Tamba
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (1375-1379)
    • No of Download = 700

    Abstract

    close

    In this study, using the plasma generated from the pulsed discharge process, we examined the possibility of simultaneous degradations of dye substance and COD component in the landfill waste water. Furthermore, the possibility of sterilization by the plasma was investigated in the experiments. Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of voltage, repetition rate, charging time and O2 coexistence on the sterilization and degradations of COD and dye substance. The experimental results show that the sterilization and simultaneous degradations of the dye substance and COD are possible by the plasma and the dye substance is easily decomposed by the plasma from COD. The degradations of the dye substance and COD were enhanced by the presence of O2, while the effect on the dye substance degradation is larger than COD degradation. The results reveal that sterilization is possible by plasma, and E. coli is completely dead as compared with the bacteria is difficult to kill completely by the plasma.

  9. ACCOUNTING FOR THE EFFECTS OF PROPERTIES OF ROCKS ON THEIR GEOMECHANICAL PROCESSES OF DISPLACEMENT Download Article

    Radomyr Oleksiiovych Timchenko, Stanislav Olegovych Popov, Mykola Ivanovych Stupnik and Dmytro Anatolievych Krishko
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (1380-1385 )
    • No of Download = 525

    Abstract

    close

    The paper deals with improving the accuracy of simulation results of geomechanical processes strata movement zones location of construction projects on earth surface at undermining their underground mining. An example of the determination of forecast zones dangerous displacement earth's surface and rock during the resumption of mining stocks ferruginous quartzite. Authors have developed methodological recommendations, which allow defining true physical and mechanical properties of rock massifs on the lab research results of samples and correction factors calculation eliminating properties irrelevance because of massif morphology peculiarities. The results of calculation by the proposed method differ by 6-10% from the actual. Solutions of the authors should be taken into account in the techniques of modeling subsidence and caving rock massifs by maintaining appropriate amendments to the calculated curves that allow establishing the basic parameters of the zones undermining arrays rock underground mining.

  10. GROUND CONDITIONS AND THE LAND OPERATIONAL PARAMETRS DETERMINED IN THE PLANNING DECISIONS Download Article

    Grzegorz Kmiecik, Marta Szejnfeld, Hanna Szymczak and Anna Szymczak-Graczyk
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (1386-1389 )
    • No of Download = 936

    Abstract

    close

    Optimal land-use planning is a tedious and long lasting process, and in its genesis the actions which set itself the goal of creating spatial order and sustainable development are taken. Inherently, in almost each country planning policy, the basic instruments of planning action are the planning decisions. They have been determined with the details of the location, purpose, method of use as well as the architectural form. As the result of these decisions, the possibility of designing and implementing a harmonious space that consider all factors and functional, socio-economic, environmental, cultural, aesthetic and compositional requirements are created. But whether planning decisions always protect interdisciplinary interests, even such an important aspect as the water ground conditions. The article based on specific example from Polish yard will appear the effects of skipping ground parameters issues related with the planning of building investment on particular area, which according to Polish legislation, are not treated as planning arrangements. Consequently, the threats to the already existing water ground relations are very probable as far as the changing of these relations may have significant influence or even challenge the implementation of a specific building investment. This situation creates a huge risk including financial consequences and frequently has a significant impact on the future of the building investment process, including the danger of suspension of works.

  11. DECONTAMINATION OF RADIOACTIVE CESIUM FROM OCEAN SLUDGE BY MICRO-BUBBLE AND MICROORGANISMS Download Article

    Kyoichi Okamoto and Takeshi Toyama
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (1390-1394 )
    • No of Download = 742

    Abstract

    close

    The Fukushima nuclear accident of March 11, 2011, soil and water had been contaminated by radioactive cesium. Moreover, radioactive cesium was found in the ocean sludge in Tokyo Bay by flowing from rivers. Here, it cannot be easily removed the cesium which is adsorbed to the sludge. On the other hand, one of the authors had developed the decomposition system for ocean sludge with circulation type by micro-bubbles, which decompose and purification sludge by activating the aerobic bacteria, after creating an aerobic state by micro-bubbles. Here, based on the hypothesis that radioactive cesium is adsorbed on the surface of the sludge deposition. It is considered that radioactive cesium can be eluted, after decomposing the deposited sludge by using the decomposition system for ocean sludge with circulation type. If the cesium will be eluted in the water, we can fix the cesium to existing technology such as “Zeolite”. In this study, our objects is to consider the performance of removal of radioactive cesium after the decomposition of the deposited sludge, by using the decomposition system for ocean sludge with circulation type by micro-bubbles and activating microorganisms.

  12. ANCHORED WALL DESIGN: COMPARING THE GLOBAL AND PARTIAL FACTORS OF SAFETY INCORPORATING THE AUSTRALIAN STANDARDS Download Article

    Hadi Khabbaz and Ye Aung
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (1395-1402 )
    • No of Download = 2505

    Abstract

    close

    A versatile and user-friendly model has been developed for evaluating the factor of safety of anchored sheet-pile structures, using both global factors of safety (GFS) and partial factors of safety (PFS) methods, abiding AS 4678 standard, an Australian standard for retaining wall design. The developed model is aimed to determine the following features: (i) depth of embedment, (ii) total wall height for determining the amount of material required, (iii) the length of anchor, (iv) the anchor force and (v) the maximum moment acting on the sheet-pile wall. Key findings are highlighted based on the design calculations. This study incorporates different design scenarios including layered soil, line loads and uniformly distributed surcharge loads to draw comparisons between the GFS and PFS methods. Many examples are used to validate the outputs of the program. The results indicate that the PFS method is preferred for design strength and safety aspects, whereas the GFS method is adopted for cost effectiveness and simplicity of design calculations. The limitations of the Australian standard AS 4678-2002 are discussed in order to identify the superiority of one method over another.

  13. SEPARATION OF AGGREGATE FROM ASPHALT CONCRETE USING PULSED POWER TECHNOLOGY Download Article

    Rétyce Ivan Hervé Dodji Togbé Amoussou, Koichi Ishimatsu, Nobuyasu Oyama and Mitsuhiro Shigeishi
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (1403-1410 )
    • No of Download = 925

    Abstract

    close

    In this paper, authors propose a pulsed power application to separate aggregate from asphalt concrete. This study aims at extracting asphalt binder from asphalt concrete specimens using pulsed power technology and evaluating the quality of the asphalt concrete recycled aggregate and residues. Pulsed power was discharged into 5% asphalt content straight and modified asphalt concrete specimens. The results demonstrate that the extraction of modified asphalt binder from asphalt concrete is more difficult than that of straight asphalt and also requires more energy to produce approximately 1% asphalt content recycled coarse aggregate. Furthermore, the results suggest that recycled aggregate quality increases with increasing pulsed power energy.

  14. CU, ZN AND AS CONTAMINATION OF SEAWEED BESIDE SHIZUKI AND KANAYAMA METAL MINES IN JAPAN Download Article

    Hiroyuki Ii
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (1411-1417 )
    • No of Download = 1118

    Abstract

    close

    Brown seaweed, Sargassum thunbergii is thought to be effective for As, Cu and Zn sensor. Green seaweed, Ulvales, red seaweed, Caulacanthus ustulatus and Ahnfeltiopsis flabelliformis are thought to be effective for just Cu sensor. High Zn concentration and large volume of Zn drainage water from the closed Kanayama mine flowed into sea and drainage water and groundwater containing Cu, Zn and As contacted with muck along the coast also flowed into sea in the closed Shizuki mine. Cu, Zn and As concentrations for many kinds of seaweed sampled at the two mines and no contamination places, the Kii and Izu Peninsula, were measured. Cu Zn and As concentrations for Sargassum thunbergii are 1000, several 100 and several 100 ppm at the Shizuki mine and 10, several 1000 and 100 ppm at the Kanayama mine, and 10, several 10 and 100 ppm at the no contamination places.

  15. GEOTECHNICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SYNTHETIC MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE FOR EFFECTIVE LANDFILL DESIGN Download Article

    Oluwapelumi O. Ojuri and Peter K. Adegoke
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (1418-1427 )
    • No of Download = 960

    Abstract

    close

    This paper presents the results of laboratory investigation performed to determine the geotechnical characteristics of synthetic municipal solid waste (SMSW); simulating typical composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in Akure metropolis, south-western Nigeria. It was generally observed that the unit weight, specific gravity and shear strength of the SMSW increased with increase in compactive effort. Direct shear tests gave cohesion value of 7.6kN/m3 for both Modified AASHTO and 4x Modified AASHTO compaction methods, while angle of shearing resistance for Modified AASHTO compaction method was 42.4o, and 48.5o for 4x Modified AASHTO compaction. In design of landfills the least shear strength failure envelope should be used for effective design. The hydraulic conductivity for both compactive efforts were within the same order of magnitude indicating that the Modified AASHTO compaction was a good approximation of field compaction for the municipal solid wastes. Compressibility test on SMSW gave compression ratio of 0.20 with total compression of 33.0% under maximum load of 224kN/m2. this complies with the results reported in literature. Compression index (cc) was 0.4, initial compression ratio (r0) was 0.19, primary compression ratio (rp) was 0.71 and secondary compression ratio (rs) was 0.10. These provide the necessary information needed for the computation of expected settlement in the landfill.

  16. INNOVATIVE GROUNDWATER TABLE MONITORING USING TDR TECHNOLOG Download Article

    Vlastimil Chebeň, Marian Drusa and Michal Kuba
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (1428-1433 )
    • No of Download = 497

    Abstract

    close

    This paper introduces an innovative and economically convenient measurement system that is based on a novelty method of installation, operation and remote control technology for ground watertable measurement. The technology is based on TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) that employ a unique hollow coaxial cable. Installation is performed by CPT/DP penetration testing equipment, which in its nature, is relatively light, versatile, operative, and is not demanding of manpower or machinery. This method brings benefit to currently unreachable sites ex. steep slopes, places with little or no road access, option for setting up additional probes on existing structures etc., as the method doesn´t require conventionally truck-mounted drilling rigs. Electronic origin of measurement offer the possibility of probe networking, remote sensing, automatic data acquisition and evaluation through developed software. Proposed measurement system has been laboratory tested, calibrated and installed on various sites over past 6 years in Slovak republic.

  17. WATER BALANCE ANALYSIS CONSIDERING RUNOFF OF UNGAUGED CATCHMENTS IN IWAKI RIVER BASIN, NORTHERN JAPAN Download Article

    Soichiro Kageyama, Shingo Tomiyama Makoto Ikeda and Hiroyuki Ii
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (1434-1440 )
    • No of Download = 959

    Abstract

    close

    For integrated and sustainable water resource management, it is essential to understand water balance of river basin. Infiltration calculated by subtracting evapotranspiration and runoff from precipitation is a key factor for groundwater resource development and is an important input data for three-dimensional groundwater flow analysis. For estimation of runoff, it needs a great challenge to establish a method for runoff in ungauged catchments, because gauging stations are usually set up in the limited main rivers. This paper focused on close relation between topography and runoff. Then, the runoff of ungauged catchments in the Iwaki River Basin was estimated by “runoff index” derived from results of geomorphometry and multivariate statistics using digital elevation model data. Comparisons between runoff indices and measured runoff data, showed clear positive correlations. This result proved that runoff index was useful for runoff estimation, and suggested that it was possible to estimate runoff of ungauged catchments from runoff index by linear regression equation.

  18. STRENGTH, MODULUS OF ELASTICITY AND SHRINKAGE BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE CONTAINING WASTE CARPET FIBER Download Article

    A.S.M. Abdul Awal, Hossein Mohammadhosseini and M. Zakaria Hossain
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (1441-1446 )
    • No of Download = 970

    Abstract

    close

    This paper presents test results on some physical and mechanical properties of concrete containing fiber from recycled carpet waste. Five concrete mixes namely plain concrete (PC) i.e. concrete without carpet fiber, as control and carpet fiber reinforced concrete (CFRC) mixes containing 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% polypropylene (PP) waste carpet fibers were made and tested for compressive, tensile and flexural strengths, modulus of elasticity and shrinkage at curing periods of 1, 7 and 28 days. It has been found that the addition of carpet fiber reduced the workability and density of concrete. Concrete containing carpet fiber exhibited lower compressive strength and modulus of elasticity than plain concrete. The carpet fibers, however, effectively improved the splitting tensile and flexural strengths of concrete. The obtained values of shrinkage revealed that the shrinkage strain of carpet fiber reinforced concrete was higher than that of plain concrete. On the basis of short-term investigation, the one-year shrinkage values of both plain concrete and concrete containing carpet fiber were also predicted by extrapolating the data obtained during this period. The results obtained in this study indicate that waste carpet fiber can suitably be used as fiber reinforcement in concrete with satisfactory performance.