Articles

  1. AN EVALUATION MODEL OF MEDICAL TRANSPORT WITH TSUNAMI EARLY WARNING SYSTEM Download Article

    Norimitsu Koike and Susumu Kurahashi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1447-1453 )
    • No of Download = 698

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    The Japanese Central Disaster Management Council announced a new damage estimate in the event of an earthquake with its epicenter in the Nankai Trough. The estimate shows the huge human damage. However, they mentioned the possibility of minimizing the casualty count by constant preparation for prompt evacuation to higher places in the event of a tsunami. This study aims to develop a reliability analysis model for medical transport activity considering a tsunami risk. The model includes a risk evaluation model developed to evaluate medical transport activity when a tsunami early warning system can be used. By applying it to Chita Peninsula in Japan, it is demonstrated that the proposed model effectively implements the evacuation and medical transport planning. Some proposals are given for the road network in the area.

  2. PORE WATER PRESSURE GENERATION AND DISSIPATION NEAR TO PILE AND FAR-FIELD IN LIQUEFIABLE SOILS Download Article

    Suresh R Dash and Subhamoy Bhattacharya
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1454-1459 )
    • No of Download = 466

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    The degree of liquefaction as characterised by the excess pore water pressure plays an important role in defining soil strength and stiffness. The pile-soil interaction in liquefiable soil, if modelled using BNWF model, the strength and stiffness of the soil springs can be suitably reduced by using a reduction factor. This reduction mainly depends on the soil type, its SPT/CPT value and the degree of liquefaction. Ideally this reduction should be based on the excess pore water pressure near the pile. However, it is difficult to estimate the degree of liquefaction near the pile. Hence, the lateral resistance of liquefied soil at soil-pile interface is normally characterized by the degree of liquefaction expected in the soil at the site without considering the influence of pile. Though, excess pore pressure near to the pile could be the governing parameter of soil resistance, it is hard to characterize the expected value of it in a field condition, as it depends on many parameters including soil type, shear loading, pile dimension, gap formation near to pile that facilitates easy dissipation of excess pore water pressure (EPWP), soil densification during pile driving, etc. Hence, to understand the difference between the far-field and near-pile response of liquefied soil, one high quality centrifuge test results are studied in this paper. The pattern of excess pore water pressure generation and development has been compared for both near-pile and far-field. The results are critically reviewed and discussed in this paper.

  3. EVALUATION OF FRP CONCRETE COMPRESSION MEMBER UNDER REPEATED LOAD AND HARSH ENVIRONMENT Download Article

    Ghanim Kashwani, Adil K. Al-Tamimi and Riyadh Al-Ameri
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1460-1466 )
    • No of Download = 466

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    Strengthening and rehabilitation have been increasingly applied in many structures to improve their capacity and serviceability. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) materials are universally known for their ability to improve the load capacity of damaged structural elements because of their high linear-elastic behavior. However, enhancing the capacity of structural elements that are exposed to repeated load coupled with harsh environment is an area that requires further investigation. This research focused on experimental analysis of the behavior and response of confined and unconfined concrete compression members (300mm x 150mm) under repeated load while exposed to 1440 cycles of seawater splash zone in United Arab Emirates (UAE). Confining concrete compression members with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) sheets have increased the load capacity compared to the control sample at room temperature by 110% and 84%, respectively. Results showed that the average value of compressive strength for the confined concrete exposed to sea water splash zone conditions for CFRP and GFRP specimens has decreased by 33% and 23%, respectively, compared to the confined concrete in the room temperature. However, GFRP specimens showed higher performance in compressive strength under sea water splash zone than those of the CFRP specimens. Different mode of failures such as delamination, de-bonding and combination of such modes were observed and related to various exposure factors and mechanical properties.

  4. LIME LEACHABILITY STUDIES ON STABILIZED EXPANSIVE SEMI-ARID SOIL Download Article

    Arif Ali Baig Moghal, Muawia A Dafalla, Tamer Y Elkady and Mosleh Ali Al-Shamrani
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1467-1471 )
    • No of Download = 1005

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    The present study is aimed at examining the role of lime and the nature of leaching solution on the lime leaching characteristics of an expansive soil originating from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Lime leachability studies were carried out in specially fabricated molds subjected to continuous leaching conditions. The specimens were compacted directly into specially fabricated perspex molds and cured for 7, 14 and 28 days under constant humidity conditions. In order to study the rate at which the calcium ions leach out from the lime treated clay matrix, water (leaching solution) was allowed to flow through the compacted specimen continuously for seven days and the resultant calcium concentration in the leachate was determined. The effects of various parameters like lime content, curing period and the pH of leaching solution on the lime leachability values has been studied. It is observed that, at a given lime content, the calcium concentration in the leachate reduces with curing period. Relatively higher amounts of lime leached under acidic conditions and the flow period does not affect the lime leaching patterns.

  5. TSUNAMI-GENERATION WARNING SYSTEM USING EARTHQUAKE EARLY WARNING Download Article

    Susumu Kurahashi and Norimitsu Koike
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1472-1476 )
    • No of Download = 442

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    We propose early-warning system for reducing tsunami refuge using the data of the magnitude and the depth informed by the Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) by Japan Metrological Agency (JMA). The EEW provides advance announcement of the estimated seismic intensity and expectSed arrival time at the just points and regions before arriving strong motion. The hypocenter and magnitude of the earthquake are estimated by using wave form data observed by seismographs near the epicenter. Inukai et al. (2009) proposed the method to determine whether generate tsunami using scaling relation between magnitude and depth of hypocenter. The probability of tsunami generating is calculated by using the EEW information (magnitude and depth) and the Inukai’s scaling relations. In this method, the information of probability of tsunami generating is issued in a few seconds after EEW. We incorporated this method into our system and verified validity of our system.

  6. ENHANCING SLOPE STABILITY WITH VEGETATION Download Article

    Nicholas Hytiris, Michael Fraser and Slobodan B. Mickovski
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1477-1482 )
    • No of Download = 741

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    Landslides can have serious impact on natural and human environment and their prevention and mitigation is of global concern. The ability of a slope to resist a landslide depends on the materials and the properties of which it is composed. This project focuses on the increased landslide resistance of a slope due to vegetation. The properties of the soil-root composite were measured in laboratory and, from these results, calculation and graphically based evaluation was used to determine their qualities for resisting landslide. The results show that vegetation roots had a stabilising effect on the slope, limited to the rooting depth. Knowing the rooting depth (generally between 0.5 and 1.5 m) and dependent on the species, a correlation between the ratio of root weight to soil weight and the slope ability to resist landslide was implied from experimental results and a hypothetical design chart and equation were derived.

  7. IMPORTANCE OF CORYDALIDAE AS AN INDEX OF METAL CONTAMINATION OF RIVER Download Article

    Akihiro Fujino and Hiroyuki Ii
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1483-1490 )
    • No of Download = 494

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    Larva of Corydalidae, a kind of dobsonfly was useful for evaluating a metal contamination of catchment. Dobsonfly larva eats many kinds of aquatic insects as food. Then, metal derived from wide area of river soil and river water is concentrated in the dobsonfly larva for long term by food chain. The average Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and As concentrations of dobsonfly larva under the polluted zone was high. Metal concentration of dobsonfly was clarified to be strongly influenced by river metal condition as well as mayfly and caddisfly. Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and As concentration factors for dobsonfly were very variable depending on river metal concentration and totally the average factors for dobsonfly were almost similar values for mayfly and caddisfly. However, caddisfly and mayfly are clarified into many kinds of species and concentration factor depends on each specie. Dobsonfly is 2 or 3 species in Japan. Therefore, dobsonfly was thought to be useful for Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and As contamination indicator.

  8. UNDERSTANDING TO PREDICT SOIL BEHAVIOR Download Article

    J. Rajaraman, K.Thiruvenkatasamy and S. Narasimha Rao
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1491-1495 )
    • No of Download = 369

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    Understanding is needed to relate variation of shear strength of soil in different environment. The shear strength is determined by the parent material of the soil (mineral skeleton), pore fluid (distilled water/ saline water) and environment which changes from land areas to deep Ocean. The shear strength interpretation is extended to the environments of turbidity currents, carbonate compensation depth and abyssal plains. The abyssal plains maintain moderate shear strength. The abyssal plain is a controlled environment which controls any events of the restless earth around it. The Carbonate compensation depth influences both turbidity currents and abyssal plains. Based on the analysis and interpretation of documented cases this paper makes a new conceptual model in interpretation of the influence of Carbonate Compensation depth on turbidity currents in Abyssal plain and the geotechnical behavior of the sediments in Abyssal plains. Documented Cases are: 1) Liquid Limit of a soil calculated by using distilled water is not representative sample in marine condition. The distilled water overestimates Geotechnical property. 2) The failure envelope of reconstituted clay mixed with distilled water is different from the one mixed with Nacl solution. 3) The Oedometer test on undisturbed specimens exposed to distilled water display higher strains than tested in solution.

  9. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS OF IRANIAN LANDFILLS AT SEASIDE OF CASPIAN SEA Download Article

    Saeed Nemati, Farzaneh Tahmoorian and Mina Mortazavi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1496-1501 )
    • No of Download = 397

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    This paper focuses on methods of solids and contained liquids management and as a case study, and evaluates the proposed landfill design in Langerood, a city in north of Iran close to Caspian Sea. In addition, the methods of waste management and disposal, environmental conditions of transport stations, kinds of waste and other influential managing parameters in this region are analysed and several solutions are presented. The amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) collected in the province of Gulan is about 35,000 tonnes/day. This province involves 4% of the total population of Iran and about 0.9% of the area of Iran, while it produces 1.4% of total MSW of Iran. There is no valuable estimation on the amount of waste generated by industrial units. Approximately 90% of MSW are discharged directly into the rivers. In addition to compostable materials, about 14,000 tonnes paper and cardboard, 9,700 tonnes plastic and 2,500 tonnes glass are annually being entered into the MSW of this province. This paper presents specific and general recommendations to enhance the solid waste management in the study region.

  10. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH AND ACID RESISTANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF CEMENT PASTE AND MORTAR INCORPORATING WASTE CERAMIC INSULATOR Download Article

    Haruki Shimazu, Hiroshi Higashiyama, Mitsunobu Iwasaki, Hajime Kaku, Kazuki Baba and Shuhei Fuku
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1502-1509 )
    • No of Download = 502

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    A series of cement paste and mortar specimens containing waste ceramic insulator and blast-furnace slag was made. The compressive strength and the acid resistance of these materials are investigated here. Among 18 specimens of cement paste, only two showed a compressive strength less than the standard specified for the sulfuric acid-proof mortar. These tests show that the waste ceramic insulator powder can be added by approximately 0.4 parts by weight in the powder materials of cement paste, and the waste ceramic insulator aggregate can be added by two-thirds by weight in the materials of mortar. The acid resistance was tested by immersing the specimens in 5% sulfuric acid. The reaction layer formation of specimens is affected by the immersion time, temperature, and compounding ratio of the materials. The results show that adding the waste ceramic insulator controls the dilatability of the reaction layer of cement paste and mortar.

  11. HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY IN LOESSIC STABILIZED SOIL Download Article

    Alercia Biga Carolina, Arrúa Pedro, Eberhardt Marcelo, Aiassa Martinez Gonzalo
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1510-1514 )
    • No of Download = 540

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    Loessic soils are the main geological storage available as a building material in Cordoba, Argentina. They are a typically kind of clayed silty soil with a metastable structure. Their structure makes them sensitive to collapse and sliding upon wetting. This has an important influence on mechanical and hydraulic behavior. Thus, usually their hydraulic properties are modified by compaction methods or by bentonite addition. Infiltration tests were done using remolded samples and a flexible wall permeameter. Compression tests were executed in a universal compression machine. Were performed in addition, capillary rise assays. Water content, dry unit weight, and percentages of ionic stabilizer and bentonite have been studied. Experiment results were compared between mixtures with different percentages of additives. The results show that the infiltration volume decreases with increasing content of bentonite in all remoulded samples tested respect to those natural soil remoulded samples, and it has been identified that the addition of bentonite increases the compressive strength by 400%.

  12. CONSUMPTION OF RAINWATER HARVESTING IN TERMS OF WATER QUALITY Download Article

    Carolyn Payus and Kui Jun Meng
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1515-1522 )
    • No of Download = 915

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    Rainwater harvesting is seen as part of solution to avoid water shortage in the future as it offers a sufficient supply and more economical if compare to the conventional way. The scarcity of water supply is becoming a concern due to the growing population of human along with environment pollutions. Rainwater harvesting is considered the most accessible source which could be easily used for potable purposes both for household and commercial activities. Therefore, in this study, the physical, microbiological and chemical rainwater quality samples were analyzed using membrane filtration technique (ELE Paqualab 50), ICP-OES and Hach methods, to ensure the suitability of rainwater harvesting for domestic consumption. The study reveals that overall quality of the rainwater is quite satisfactory as per WHO and Malaysian standards, where the pH, turbidity, total dissolved solids, salinity, NO3-, SO42-, Zn and Pb were still under the permissible limits. However, the microbiological parameters (total coliform, fecal coliform and E. coli) and chemical (Cr) were found exceeded the standards, due to poor hygienic practices of the harvesting system. It can be concluded that the rainwater harvesting is still safe to drink and can be a potential alternative source of water supply in the future.

  13. PESTICIDE SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT PRACTICE (SMP) INCLUDING POROUS BIOCHAR/GEOPOLYMER STRUCTURES FOR CONTAMINATED WATER REMEDIATION Download Article

    an P Craig, Jochen Bundschuh and David Thorpe
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1523-1527 )
    • No of Download = 435

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    As a result of agribusiness in Australia and across the world, water is contaminated with nutrients and pesticides which threaten riverine environments, wetlands, urban drinking water supplies and also marine assets such as the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Much can be done and sustainable management practices (SMP) can be put into place to reduce water impacts from agriculture. Required investment levels are insignificant compared to the economic advantages to be gained from adopting appropriate SMP across Australian and global agribusiness. SMP technologies need to be targeted at specific pesticides (eg. atrazine, simazine, diruron, ametryn, hexazinone, tebuthiuron, dieldrin, metalochlor, 2,4 D, triclopyr, picloram and bromacil). Surface runoff from agricultural enterprises is conventionally managed by retention lagoons facilitating water reuse on-farm, but these can be breached during heavy storms. Long term deep drainage from fields and seepage from lagoons can also lead to contaminated groundwater. Research, development and testing of appropriate non-leaking/reactive spillways and subsurface geostructures needs to take place across the various agricultural industries. For surface water it is suggested that spillways could be designed with replaceable biochar baffles, and for groundwater, trenches of biochar could form Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRB). The potential for green or brown waste material derived biochar products, which could be readily manufactured from farm refuse and manure, needs to be thoroughly investigated in this regard. The challenge for engineers is to come up with geostructural designs which are efficient, cost effective and which will be taken up and embraced by Australian and world agribusiness.

  14. ARTIFICIAL BEACHROCK FORMATION THROUGH SAND SOLIDIFICATION TOWARDS THE INHIBIT OF COASTAL EROSION IN BANGLADESH Download Article

    Md. Nakibul Hasan Khan, Takashi Danjo and Satoru Kawasaki
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1528-1533 )
    • No of Download = 1345

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    Erosion is a great problem in the coast areas of Bangladesh. The present study was conducted through literature survey to evaluate the prospects of making artificial beachrock through sand solidification for the protection from coastal erosion in Bangladesh. On average, recession through erosion due to sea level rise (SLR) in the coast of Bangladesh will occur 0.87m per 1cm rise in sea level. Artificial beachrocks have the potentials to inhibit coastal erosion. Beachrock is a type of sedimentary deposit that generally occurs on tropical and subtropical beaches as a result of intertidal lithification of loose beach sands and gravels by carbonate cementation. Chemically, beachrock around the world differs in composition but mainly it composed of CaCO3 and SiO2. Beachrocks are cemented by high Mg calcite (HMC) with the influence on precipitation from seawater and/or seawater evaporation (PSW) and on surface microorganisms, bacterial ureolysis. On 30 0C curing temperature which is similar to the average temperature in Bangladesh beach sand solidified 5 to 8 MPa unconfined comprehensive strength (UCS) in 28 curing days using the ureolytic bacteria (Pararhodobacter sp.). It is concluded that it may be possible to manufacture artificial rocks through sand solidification similar to beachrocks for erosion control purposes in Bangladesh.

  15. AN APPROACH OF DIFFERENTIAL CAPACITOR SENSOR FOR LANDSLIDE MONITORING Download Article

    S. M. A. Motakabber and M. I. Ibrahimy
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1534-1537 )
    • No of Download = 446

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    A lot of lives and properties are lost in every year all over the world, due to various geological catastrophes, landslide or land-slip is among one of them. Nowadays, both manual and electronic monitoring systems are used to predict the landslide. The manual monitoring system is laborious, has many limitations and most of the cases it is not practicable. Conversely, most of the electronic systems are complex and expensive. Most of the natural calamities occur without prior notice as a result, it damages the monitoring instrument as well. The monitoring sensor system should be planned as a spread network with a simple positional identification device such as RFID; hence the system can send the real time data without interrupt. In addition, the network should have a self-recovery, self-directed operation and actual data transmission facility in a critical situation. A distributed node network needs a lot of sensors with complex structure and it is expensive too. This paper describes a simple and low cost system which comprises an underground pretension cable with a capacitor gauge sensor attached at one end. A wireless sensor network has been proposed for a simple landslide monitoring system using RFID. The sensing node network can operate by initializing mode, measuring mode and urgent mode. The system is able to select automatically any one of the operating mode depending on the situation, which makes it a robust and dynamic control of real time data transmission system. A mathematical model has been developed for the system and verified by simulation. The result shows that an early prediction of the landslide is possible by using the proposed system.

  16. IMPACT OF BUBBLER DISCHARGE AND IRRIGATION WATER QUANTITY ON HYDRAULIC PERFORMANCE EVALUATION AND MAIZE BIOMASS YIELD Download Article

    H.A. Mansour, E.F. Abdallah, M.S. Gaballah and Cs.Gyuricza
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1538-1544 )
    • No of Download = 653

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    The aim of current research work was to study the effect of two bubbler irrigation discharges (BD) were: a) 8 LPH and b) 12 LPH, and different water quantity treatments from evapotranspiration (ET): 100%, 75%, 50% on uniformity coefficient (UC%), emission uniformity (EU%) and coefficient of variation (CV%), maize (Zea mays-L., HF-10 Varity) grain and Hay yield. The experimental design was split in randomized complete block with three replicates. So, field experiment for one growing season (2014) was conducted in sandy soil at the Agricultural Research and Production Station of National Research Centre, El-Nubaria, Elbehira Governorate, Egypt. Irrigation water was added in order to compensate for ET of maize. The obtained results could be summarized as follow: Parameters under study could be ranked in following descending orders: 8 LPH>12 LPH and 100>75>50 for bubbler discharge treatments, except for CV%. Investigated bubbler discharge (8 and 12 LPH), increase operating pressure head, getting improvement in UC%, EU% and decreasing CV values. With respect to BD and ET% effect on UC, EU%, maize hay yield, and significant difference at the 1 % level between all mean values of bubblers and ET% treatments were obtained. The interaction effects of the investigated factors, the highest and lowest values of maize hay yield were recorded under 8 LPH X 100% and 12 LPH X 50% ET treatments. These attained results were attributed to the improvement in hydraulic parameters of UC%, EU% and CV Also the Irrigation treatments of 100 and 75% from ET were covered water requirements and also recorded convergent results in values which means that the quantity of water added (which is the difference between the 100-75% =25% ET). It’s amount, in excess of the plant required under the current conditions of the experiment. So it can be recommended to using 75% for saving 25% from water requirements under bubbler irrigation system using 8 LPH bubbler.

  17. PERFORMANCE OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL DIFFERENT LOCALIZED IRRIGATION SYSTEMS AND LATERAL LENGTHS FOR EMITTERS CLOGGING AND MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) GROWTH AND YIELD Download Article

    H. A. Mansour, M. Abdel-Hady, Ebtisam I. Eldardiry and V. F. Bralts
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1545-1552 )
    • No of Download = 743

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    Many parts of the world including Egypt currently suffer from water scarcity. For this reason optimization of the available water has become a necessity not only from the point of limited water resources, but also relative to the growing demand for food. Field experiments were conducted at Experimental Farm of National Research Center, El-Nubaria, El-Buhaira Governorate, Western Delta, Egypt to study the effect of automatic control of the localized irrigation system(LIS) as a modified system on emitter’s clogging and maize parameters in new reclaimed lands by using the following treatments: a) Bubbler irrigation systems (B); b) Low head drip irrigation system (LHD), and c) Mini-sprinkler irrigation system (MS) through different lateral lengths (40, 50; 60m). Plants were irrigated every 4 days to compensate ETc and salt leaching requirement took place. The obtained data showed that emitter’s clogging percentage could be ranked in the ascending orders: LHD<B<MS for LIS and 40<50<60 for lateral lengths used. The highest emitter’s clogging % was 14.25 % recorded under MS and the 10.68 % was recorded at B irrigation system. Emitter’s clogging percent of lateral lengths treatments recorded 6.34, 12.27; 18.86 % under 40, 50; 60 m, respectively. Vegetative growth and yield parameters (leaf area, plant height, leaf length, number of leaf plant-1, grain and straw yield) LIS and lateral lengths used could be ranked in the following ascending order: MS<LHD<B and 60<50<40 m for lateral length, respectively. LIS and different lateral lengths, were recommend for planting maize under the treatment LHD X lateral length at 40 m that found to be suitable for high production of grain and straw yield and using either B or MS according to their availability.

  18. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT ON RECYCLING OF CONSTRUCTION SLUDGES IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING FIELDS Download Article

    Shinya Inazumi, Cheema Soralump, Suttisak Soralump, Satoru Ohtsuka and Yoshihiro Nakagishi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1553-1566 )
    • No of Download = 787

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    Although waste recycling has been promoted in response to increasing environmental awareness in Japan, its marketability is being questioned due to the recycling cost. The ultimate goal of waste recycling is to reduce the environmental load. In this paper, we examined the evaluation method for social environmental efficiency to socially evaluate waste recycling, by incorporating environmental load as an environmental cost in addition to the direct cost. The social environmental efficiency evaluation including consideration of uncertainties is conducted, because waste recycling involves various uncertain elements. As the results, the social environmental significance of construction sludge recycling can be evaluated quantitatively while focusing on the particular construction sludge with a lower recycling rate.