Articles

  1. INTERPRETATION OF SCREW PILE LOAD TEST DATA USING EXTRAPOLATION METHOD IN DENSE SAND Download Article

    Adnan Anwar Malik, Jiro Kuwano, Shinya Tachibana and Tadashi Maejima
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1567-1574)
    • No of Download = 1538

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    The basic definition of ultimate pile capacity is the load at which pile penetration keep on increasing without increasing the applied load (plunging resistance state). The plunging resistance state is often not achieved due to the limitation of the loading system, especially under dense ground conditions. Therefore, extrapolation methods were proposed to estimate the ultimate state of the ground (plunging resistance). However, in case of screw piles, helix deformation can reduce the end bearing capacity and should be kept in mind while interpreting load test data. In the present study, the extrapolation methods such as Chin-Kondner and Decourt were used to check the indication of helix plate deformation from the screw pile load test data. The prediction capability of the ultimate end bearing capacity was also checked at settlement equals to 10% of helix diameter and at plunging resistance state. Model scale of pile load testing under dense ground condition was selected to achieve the plunging resistance state. It was observed from the test results that the Decourt method of plotting could indicate the helix plate deformation. A modified approach was proposed in Decourt method of plotting to estimate the helix limit load. It was also observed from the prediction analysis that it would be better to select the ultimate end bearing capacity from the predicted model curve at settlement equals to 10% of helix diameter. A reduction factor based on load test results is proposed so that the prediction of extrapolation methods at 10% of helix diameter can be controlled.

  2. KINEMATIC ASSESSMENT OF SLOPES AT HANDLEBAR HILL OPEN CUT MINE, MT. ISA, QUEENSLAND, AUSTRALIA Download Article

    Maged Al Mandalawi, Greg You, Kim Dowling and Peter Dahlhaus
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1575-1583)
    • No of Download = 849

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    A complete kinematic analysis was conducted for the west slope at the Handlebar Hill mine using the Rocscience/Dips 6.0 software. The west slope was divided into three zones: W1 (south-west), W2 (mid-west) and W3 (north-west), which were then subdivided into nine small elements to increase the certainty of parameters. This enabled the analysis to define the potential kinematics of motions of critical structures. Small scale joints, bedding, faults, shears along the discontinuities were plotted and the data were analysed systematically.  The results indicated that the potential toppling mode created by discontinuities can lead to direct/flexural toppling failure. The kinematic feasibility also revealed that the intersections of the discontinuities within the critical zone can structurally control the wedge planar failure modes. The results will assist the mine geotechnical engineers to understand the potential slope failure mechanisms and their locations.

  3. GEOTECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF NATURAL SLOPES AND VALLEYS BASED ON REAL TIME RAINFALL DATA Download Article

    Athapaththu A.M.R.G., Yabuki K.and Tsuchida T.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1584-1594)
    • No of Download = 1119

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    In monsoon periods, slope failures are major natural disasters in western Japan where most of the areas are covered with weathered Granite (Masado) or weathered Rhyolite. The present hazard assessment system available to predict such catastrophic events in the region is not adequate for early evacuation purposes as it is not based on any reliable geotechnical assessments.  To incorporate geotechnical inputs and to enhance present risk assessment, this study was proposed and initially a method to determine shear strength parameters was established. Authors have been already established a sound methodology and relationships to determine shear strength parameters for weathered Granite and the present study focuses to develop the same for weathered Rhyolite and to propose a method to evaluate real time factor of safety based on real time rainfall data. A series of laboratory model tests based on lightweight dynamic cone penetrometer and direct shear tests were conducted on weathered Rhyolite collected at Shobara city, Japan. Good graphical relationships were developed with cone resistance, qd and void ratio e, void ratio e and apparent cohesion cd, and void ratio e and internal friction angle fd.  Stability analyses were conducted considering shear strength parameters and the water table estimated based on real time rainfall data. It was found that the time of occurring slope failures are well evaluated from the proposed method logy from this study. This study can be extended to evaluate slope failures in forecasted rainfall conditions.

  4. COST EFFECTIVENESS OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT ON STABILISED EXPANSIVE SOILS Download Article

    Raju Sarkar, Abhinav Daalia, Karan Narang, Shubham Garg and Pulkit Agarwal
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1595-1599)
    • No of Download = 1305

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    Black cotton soil also known as expansive soil poses a lot of problems to structures resting over it. Flexible pavements with expansive soil subgrade have shown very poor performance due to differential settlement and cracking. The present study deals with the cost effectiveness of flexible pavement on stabilized expansive soil. The subgrade course was stabilized with lime and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test was performed for different proportions of lime content. The thickness of various layers of pavement was then calculated in accordance with IRC: 37 [1]. Cost analysis was then made for pavements with both unstabilized and stabilized subgrade course based on Public Works Department (PWD) of Delhi. It was observed that when expansive soil was stabilized with 5% lime content, the drop in cost of flexible pavement was maximum.

  5. CU, CO, CR AND NI OF RIVER WATER, RIVER INSECT AND WATER PLANT IN THE KINOKAWA RIVER CATCHMENT Download Article

    Takuma Kubohara and Hiroyuki Ii
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1600-1606)
    • No of Download = 1034

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    Metals concentration of insect and plant were useful for evaluating metal contamination and were proposed to be an effective index as metal contamination of river. Heavy metals of water, river insect and water plant were studied in order to clarify influence of geological condition on water, insect and plant metal contamination. Cu, Co, Cr and Ni concentrations of river water were lower than those of insect and plant. Cu and Co concentrations in river insect and water plant were affected by the Cu mines because their concentrations were high in the Cu mine area. Cr and Ni concentrations in river insect and water plant were affected by serpentinite because their concentrations were high in the serpentinite area. It was found that metals concentrations in moss and plant root were effective indicator for the influence of geological condition because Cu and Ni concentrations of plant root and Co and Cr concentrations of moss indicated highest concentration and wide range.

  6. A CONCEPTUAL MODEL OF ENVIRONMENTAL, GEOLOGICAL AND GEO-TECHNICAL RESPONSE OF DREDGED SEDIMENT FILLS TO GEO-DISTURBANCES IN LOWLANDS Download Article

    J. Rajaraman, K.Thiruvenkatasamy and S. Narasimha Rao
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1607-1614)
    • No of Download = 600

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    In mineralogical evolution of clays, amongst the weathering phenomena, hydrolysis is very important. Clay minerals of 2/1 type, which first appear, are silica-rich with two tetrahedral silica sheets. The 1/1 clay minerals that follow have but one tetrahedral sheet and the last, gibbsite, has none at all. It is important to consider temperate and tropical environments. The kaolinite-gibbsite association is mostly characteristic of tropical environments. When all the silicates disappear to the gain of gibbsite, it is called total hydrolysis. Kaolinite and gibbsite are stable products in tropical environment. In temperate environment, weathering is often halted at the stage of 2/1 minerals (for example montmorillonite). This weathering can continue with kaolinite. In both cases it is partial hydrolysis only. This shows that the tropical environment is the only one to accumulate large quantities of gibbsite. In temperate climate only small amount of gibbsite is produced. In this paper a conceptual model of three layer system consisting of kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite is considered with symbols K, I, M respectively. The Geo- disturbance caused by dredging varies from pocket to pocket in the soil profile. The permutations and combinations of placed dredged materials are considered with different combinations of the three clay types (KIM). All possible combinations will yield 24 different Geo-Technical sequences. The above analysis is applied to important lowland Geo-technology problems in coastal areas such as sub-grade in pavement construction, land reclamation and fills to contribute to marine multi-inter-disciplinary research.

  7. AN OVERVIEW ON OIL CONTAMINATED SAND AND ITS ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS Download Article

    Rajab M. Abousnina, Allan Manalo, Jim Shiau, Weena Lokuge
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (1615-1622)
    • No of Download = 1334

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    Oil leakage is considered as one of the significant environmental issue worldwide, which affects the physical and chemical properties of the surrounding sand. A range of remediation methods for oil-contaminated sand was recommended but none are considered to be cost effective especially in developing countries. In order to find an alternative and cost-effective remediation method, the use of oil contaminated sand in engineering and construction has been considered. This paper reviews the main sources of oil contamination, the existing remediation methods and critically analyzed several factors that affecting the properties of oil contaminated sand. Emerging applications of oil contaminated sand in engineering and construction are also presented.

  8. MODELING AND PREDICTION OF FLEXURAL STRENGTH OF HYBRID MESH AND FIBER REINFORCED CEMENT-BASED COMPOSITES USING ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK (ANN) Download Article

    P.B. Sakthivel, A. Ravichandran and N. Alagumurthi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1623-1635)
    • No of Download = 632

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    In this paper, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been used to predict the equivalent flexural strength of hybrid mesh and fiber reinforced cement-based composites (HMFRCBC). Three ANN models (Models 1, 2 and 3) were developed for predicting the flexural strength of cement-based composites. Model 1 used 48 data of the previously published data of the present authors and Model 2 used 48 data (out of the 75 ANN validated data) from previous studies related to mesh reinforced cement-based composites. Model 3 with 98 data (combined data sets of Model 1 and Model 2) employed seven input parameters, namely the width and depth of slab, cylinder compressive strength, mesh ultimate strength, mesh volume fraction, fiber volume fraction, fiber ultimate strength, and an output, the ultimate flexural strength of mesh and fiber reinforced cement based composites. Hidden layer was fixed based on 5 trial runs for Models 1 and 2, and 10 trial runs for Model 3. All the three models (Models 1, 2 and 3) were trained with 80% of the data, and tested with balance 20% of the data. For Models 1, 2 and 3, the Lowest Individual Error (LIE) of 11.18%, 6.95% and 11.56% (respectively) is achieved in Trial Run No.1.4 (with I-H-O, Input-Hidden Neurons-Output of 5-6-1), Trial Run No.2.2 (5-4-1) and Trial Run No.3.7 (7-10-1) respectively. Also, the lowest absolute average deviation (AAD%) of 4.81%, 3.51% and 4.58% (respectively);  lowest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 0.86, 0.76 and 0.99 (respectively);  and highest R2 of 0.933, 0.988 and 0.975 (respectively) are seen for these trials 1.4, 2.2, 3.7 in Models 1, 2 and 3 respectively.  All the three ANN models were found to be in good agreement with actual results, and these three ANN models can serve as simple but reliable predictive tools in determination of flexural strength of HMFRCBC.

  9. EVALUATION OF MEASURED AND INTERPRETED FAILURE LOADS OF BORED PILES IN ALLUVIAL SOIL DEPOSITS Download Article

    Abdul Karim M. Zein and Enass M. Ayoub
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1636-1643)
    • No of Download = 1814

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    This paper presents an evaluation of the ultimate load carrying capacity of bored piles measured directly and obtained from selected methods of load test data interpretation based on different failure criteria. Large scale bored piles were installed in alluvial soil deposits and statically loaded to failure. The measured failure loads varied from 195 to 520kN and pile displacements of 1.3 to 2.7%D were required to mobilize such loads for the considered test conditions. The pile shaft friction component contributed over 83% of the total measured ultimate capacity and was fully mobilized at displacements of 0.2 to 0.8%D. A rigorous analysis was carried out to compare the measured and interpreted pile failure loads and evaluate the performance of six published load test interpretation methods. Based on the evaluation results, the L1-L2 and the Fuller and Hoy’s interpretation methods indicated the best overall performance in estimating the failure loads. The De Beer and Van der Veen methods revealed similar and fairly good evaluation ratings whereas the Davisson interpretation method showed a relatively poor performance. The Chin’s method exhibited a gross overestimation of measured ultimate capacities and among all yielded the poorest overall performance.

  10. EFFECTIVENESS OF JUTE GEOTEXTILES IN FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT CONSTRUCTION Download Article

    Muniruzzaman Shah Md., Rahman Md. Afzalur, Islam Mohammad Monjurul, Hossain Md. Shahin
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1644-1648)
    • No of Download = 857

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    Jute, the forerunners of the manmade fibers, is used as a soil erosion control in highway side slope protection and reinforcing section of new road on poor subgrade. The effectiveness of the jute geotextiles as subgrade soil reinforcement for a flexible pavement has been investigated in this study. A systematic laboratory investigation has been carried out on the sandy soil sample collected from an Integrated Development Project in Dhaka city. Here, a comparative study is performed for the CBR values of the subgrade soil sample with jute geotextiles and without jute geotextiles. The test results show that the CBR value increases significantly with the application of jute geotextiles in subgrade soil. Further investigation has been carried out by placing jute geotextiles at different layers to find out its influence over soil keeping the same dry densities. It is found that CBR increase ratio is higher when jute geotextiles is placed at the bottom layers i.e. away from the loading point. It is also found that in case of sandy soil, the use of jute geotextiles as subgrade reinforcement is less significant when larger compaction effort has been applied.

  11. ULTIMATE BEARING CAPACITY OF FOOTING ON SANDY SOIL AGAINST COMBINED LOAD OF VERTICAL, HORIZONTAL AND MOMENT LOADS Download Article

    Du L. Nguyen, S. Ohtsuka, and K. Kaneda
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1649-1655)
    • No of Download = 834

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    Rigid plastic finite element method employing the rigid plastic constitutive equation, which considers non-linear shear strength properties against confining pressure, is used for the assessment of ultimate bearing capacity of footing on sandy soils against the combined load of vertical, horizontal and moment loads. The numerical results were compared with the results predicted by semi-empirical bearing capacity formulate of Architectural Institute of Japan and others. The comparison is conducted in terms of vertical and horizontal loads plane and vertical and moment loads plane. The limit load is expressed in normalization form by the limit vertical load, Vo. Results show that the normalized vertical load decreases with the increase in the normalized horizontal load and/or moment load. Effect of non-linear shear strength on the normalized limit load space in vertical, horizontal and moment loads is clearly indicated. The normalized horizontal load is obtained greater than that of linear shear strength property.

  12. SPECTRAL-TEMPORAL FEATURES OF SEISMIC LOADINGS ON THE BASIS OF STRONG MOTION WAVELET DATABASE Download Article

    Vladislav Zaalishvili, Dmitry Melkov, Alexandr Kanukov, Boris Dzeranov
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1656-1661)
    • No of Download = 422

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    There are many different techniques for seismic impact simulation for engineering purposes. Some of them are very detailed and while practice needs quite simple and effective one. All of the techniques widely used determine envelop of seismic process in the time domain. Currently, it is possible to build a model based on a detailed study of the spectral and temporal energy content of seismic process. Wavelet analysis is an effective tool for spectral-temporal analysis. New type of database was developed for new seismic loadings model research. The main features are: wavelet transformation of initial seismic data (accelerograms), taking into account relative orientation of fault plane and station site. New algorithms of polarization and wavelet analysis were developed. The second one is based on fast Fourier transform and more efficient for big data processing. Spectral-temporal envelope matrix was introduced as new parameter for development of new impact models. Polarization analysis results show a good accordance of p-wave ellipsoid azimuth correlation with calculated one, while s-wave (group of SH-waves) plane is strongly influenced by relative fault plane location. Obtained results may be used for new empirical-analytical model of seismic impacts development for usage in seismic design.

  13. BEHAVIOR OF RECYCLED CONCRETE AGGREGATE IMPROVED WITH LIME ADDITION DURING CYCLIC LOADING Download Article

    Wojciech Sas, Andrzej Głuchowski and Alojzy Szymański
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1662-1669)
    • No of Download = 566

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    In this paper, study on the use of reclaimed waste in Recycled Concrete Aggregate (RCA) was conducted. Reclaimed concrete problem has increased over the past decade, due to the replacement of the old concrete parts, such as rail substructures or pavement curb. The main idea of this article was the introduction of recycled materials to pavement engineering, which in Poland were usually deposited on waste landfills. Geotechnical study was undertaken to obtain physical and mechanical properties of RCA. For better understanding of its exceptional behavior under repeated loading, cyclic triaxial test was conducted in various stages of loading. For the purpose of bearing capacity analysis, uniaxial tests were made. Moreover, RCA improvement of mechanical properties was proposed. Chemical stabilization with lime and gypsum was undertaken in order to ameliorate mechanical characteristics. While the mechanical stabilization is a cause of aggregates crushing, created fine fraction could be a stabilizing medium. Stabilization process in this study demonstrates existence of free pozzolanic compound in crushed concrete.  Determination of resilient modulus Mr from repeated loading test for non-stabilized and stabilized material was also presented for non-stabilized and stabilized RCA Mr value was 543.2MPa and 816.5MPa respectively. In this article, plastic strains occurrence was also analyzed. As a brittle material, RCA can response to cyclic loading by crushing. Repeated excitations can cause another mechanism of plastic strains development, not present in natural aggregates, where main causes of plastic strains are frictional forces occurring during contact between particles.

  14. APPLICATION OF MICROSEISMIC AND CALCULATIONAL TECHNIQUES IN ENGINEERING-GEOLOGICAL ZONATION Download Article

    V.B. Zaalishvili, D.A. Melkov, A.S. Kanukov, B.V. Dzeranov, V.D. Shepelev
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1670-1674)
    • No of Download = 528

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    Data on engineering-geological conditions is the basis for seismic microzonation (SMZ). It is usually based on different data of field geological works in the investigated area, including drilling data, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) sensing, etc. At the same time seismic properties of soils (mainly velocities of p- and s-waves) are obtained by seismic exploration. This technique is used for typical sites. While the quality of initial engineering-geological map strongly affects selection of such “typical” sites. Practice of seismic microzonation has shown that such maps must be refined before usage of the main SMZ techniques (earthquakes and explosions recording, etc.) which are relatively labor-intensive. For practical realization of SMZ in the Republic of the North Ossetia-Alania we had to use combined microseismic technique to refine engineering-geological-data, especially in instrumental “gaps” regions. As a result new statistical method for different site type allocation was developed. It is based on histograms of different site parameters, obtained from microseisms processing. Mobile seismic stations was used to investigate large areas in a short terms, exploration grid size was from 100 up to 500 meters in some places. H/V technique was used for predominant period estimation. Numerical models were used for data control in reference sites. As a result new refined engineering-geological maps of Vladikavkaz, Beslan, Alagir, Ardon and other cities were obtained in a short time.

  15. VARIATIONS IN PRESSUREMETER MODULUS (EM) Download Article

    Radhi Alzubaidi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages ( 1675-1679)
    • No of Download = 1740

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    The modulus EM is frequently used in the design of foundations to estimate the displacement of geotechnical structures, for  loaded foundations, flexible earth retaining structures, and even as a first assessment for embankment lying on compressible soil. One of the main parameters that interpreted from Menard Pressuremeter test is the elastic modulus. Different methods been used to explore the values of EM from pressuremeter tests, in the present paper three methods utilized to interpret the pressuremeter tests modulus that conducted in a site in Abu Dhabi. The methods showed great discrepancies in the deduced values of the elastic modulus for the same tests. The differences in the results may reach to 80%, the present study also suggested a reliable method of analysis for the pressuremeter modulus.

  16. EXPECTED SEISMIC INTENSITY ASSESSMENT TAKING INTO ACCOUNT LOCAL TOPOGRAPHY SITE EFFECT Download Article

    Vladislav Zaalishvili, Dmitry Melkov and Irina Gabeeva
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1680-1686)
    • No of Download = 536

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    The analysis of seismic codes of different countries shows accounting of seismic properties of soils caused mainly by their physical and mechanical properties but effect of the topography on site effect is not even considered. Exception is the Building Codes of France. The paper presents the results of experimental investigations of the influence of topographic features on the formation of the effect of strong earthquakes. Examples of amplification of seismic effect due to relief features are shown in the form of field, laboratory and numerical (mathematical modelling) investigations. It is defined that not only slope angle but also height of observation point significantly influences on site effect. It is shown that the intensity of the earthquake in mountainous areas is determined not only by the slope angle value, but also the specific location of the site in the hierarchy of the rock massif. Obtained instrumental data analysis showed that the influence of the relief on the seismic effect of the earthquakes can be most completely accounted by the parameter R, that is the product of the slope angle and the height. It has been defined that the intensity increment can be changed regardless of the constituent rock types from 0 to 1.5 points. It is found that the vibration amplitude varies considerably with the relief and this dependence is different for the displacements, velocities and accelerations.

  17. RELATING THE BREAKAGE INDEX AND SETTLEMENT OF GEOGRID-REINFORCED BALLAST Download Article

    Chee-Ming Chan and Norsharina Abdul Rahman
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1687-1692)
    • No of Download = 416

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    Trains have historically served as a relatively economical, quick and safe mode of public and freight transportation. Rail tracks on which the trains traverse require regular maintenance to ensure optimum performance of the rail services. Often the track’s superstructure seems to have received more attention than the substructure for performance assessment. As a foundation, the substructure, which is typically of ballast layer, plays the role of transferring the traffic load to the compacted subgrade. Degradation and breakage of ballast can lead to deformed track geometry and excessive or non-uniform track settlements, compromising the traffic ability and safety of the system. A potential approach to improve the performance of the ballast layer is geogrid reinforcement. The present study recreates the composite foundation in a lab-scale static test with geogrid placed at various heights in the ballast layer. The steel model box measured 200 mm x 200 mm x 200 mm. There was no apparent yielding of the ballast layer, with or without geogrid inclusion, indicative of a strain-hardening behaviour of the material under load. Taking the acceptable settlement as no more than 25 mm in a typical 300 mm ballast layer, the failure point was therefore defined at 8.3 % from the load-settlement curves. Sieve analysis was conducted on the ballast before and after the compression test to determine deterioration of the ballast via breakage under load. A graphical analytical method was next adopted to identify the Ballast Breakage Index (Bg) in relation to the overall settlement reduction. Overall particle breakage was not found to be expediently mitigated by geogrid installation in the ballast layer. The settlement reduction though was very much attributed to lateral spread control by the geogrid reinforcement.

  18. MINING IMPACT ON ENVIRONMENT ON THE NORTH OSSETIAN TERRITORY Download Article

    Burdzieva O.G., Zaalishvili V.B., Beriev O.G., Kanukov A.S., Maysuradze M.V.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1693-1697)
    • No of Download = 379

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    The article considers a problem of mining activity influence on environmental conditions. Modern mining production doesn’t have fully waste-free and environmentally benign technologies, leading to atmosphere, soil, surface and ground waters pollution, accumulation of solid and liquid waste and also to irrational utilization of natural resources. Extent of anthropogenic activities negative influence in mining area of mineral production in the regions of Northern Caucasus considerably exceed the scales of consequences of natural geologic and geochemical processes, which take place on the Earth. Zones of anomalously high pollution levels caused by mountain areas topography and medium adsorption properties are determined for the territory of Vladikavkaz city. We take into account the direction of the wind rose for the influence of air currents on the distribution of contaminants and their potential impact on the oncological diseases rate of population. The spread of neoplasm among the inhabitants of urbanized mountainous territory was studied. The analysis of the data showed the close correlation between the characteristics of the wind flows and cancer morbidity for the age group from 18 to 20 years and for all age groups on the localization of blood diseases, thyroid gland, and bladder. In the case of a strong earthquake could happen discharges of hazardous wastes and substances that adversely affect human health and the environment in general.

  19. INTRODUCING ADVANCED TOPICS IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING TEACHING – TUNNEL MODELLING Download Article

    Jim Shiau, Mathew Sams and Brian Lamb
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1698-1705)
    • No of Download = 1038

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    This paper demonstrates a strategy to integrate research into teaching at a postgraduate level. It involves the use of simple small-scale physical models of a tunnel heading, the introduction of particle image velocimetry, an advanced computing technique used to further visualize the movement of soil, and a numerical model of a tunnel heading. Based on staff experience and student feedback, it is concluded that this is an effective and satisfying way to engage students with the subject matter. It is also hoped that discussing and displaying some of these advanced topics will encourage further student interest in geotechnical engineering research.