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  1. SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEISMIC WAVES AT STRONG GROUND MOTIONS Download Article

    Vladislav Zaalishvili
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1706-1717)
    • No of Download = 734

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    Introduction of the value of the weight-average period of ground vibrations significantly improves the differentiation quality of various types of soils. The dependence of the spectral composition of the seismic waves on power, physical and mechanical properties of soils that compound a ground stratum and hydrogeological conditions are considered. On the basis of data analysis a conclusion about high usefulness of powerful pulsed and vibration artificial nonexplosive sources for seismic microzonation is made. A particular attention was paid to the investigation of the absorption indexes of seismic energy in different types of soil. It is shown that the use of the extended type of soil indexes, in particular, to include the standard spectral characteristics can significantly improve the accuracy and reliability of the establishment of engineering and geological cross-section of a ground stratum and its hydrogeological conditions.

  2. THE USE OF SINKHOLE MODELS IN ADVANCED GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING TEACHING Download Article

    Jim Shiau, Brian Lamb and Mathew Sams
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1718-1724)
    • No of Download = 1325

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    This paper demonstrates an approach to integrate geotechnical research into an advanced geotechnical engineering course. It involves the use of a simple 3D small-scale sinkhole model, a 2D numerical model of an idealized sinkhole, and an advanced 3D numerical model. A three-week teaching activity that integrates this material into the course is developed, ranging from the introductory material through to experiment conduction and reporting. By incorporating some advanced topics such as this into the course, it is expected that the students will have an increased awareness and understanding of natural geotechnical phenomena. It is also hoped that the model will help foster further interest in the geotechnical discipline, for either research or practice.

  3. RHEOLOGICAL ANALISIS IN THE MAKING OF CEMENT PASTE FOR CEMENTING IN OIL WELLS Download Article

    Darlanny Silva Diniz, Sanclero de Melo Nunes, Frankslale Meira and Mauricio Rodrigues Pereira
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1725-1729)
    • No of Download = 690

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    According to former President of Petrobrás, Maria das Graças Silva Foster, in 2013 the Brazil produced about 1 million barrels per day, that is, much of the nation's economic demand is subject to extraction of oil, what determines the country scientific investments for the Betterment of this economic mode, in order to maximize the extraction and prevent environmental damage. On the extraction of oil in the drilling process, a step that is required is the cementing of the well. The cement used in the process is subject to strict conditions of temperature and pressure, and must support fragile and porous rocks, fluids corrosive and pressurized. Therefore, it is necessary to check the rheological behavior of cement paste. This work aims to evaluate the study of rheology and rotational dynamics in cementing oil wells. It is therefore important to improve the homogeneity of the cement and ceramic suspensions because they lose these characteristics when subjected to the transport, mixing and pumping. Was held the addition of minerals and additives in the folder for the oil well cement in accordance with the regulations in force, with the implementation of models of Bingham and dynamic power or oscillatory. Where was evaluated by testing the determination of the potential for speed and tests zeta compression and mechanical traction. Evaluated by testing for developers and rheological tests to determine zeta potential of more than 30 mV being the same stable and mechanical compression and traction test.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF SOIL FORMATION CORRESPONDING TO CYCLIC STRESS – DERIVED SHEAR STRAIN FUNCTION BASED ON STRATUM INDEX FACTOR Download Article

    Abdull Halim Abdul
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1730-1736)
    • No of Download = 512

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    Historically shear strain function and complex shear modulus based on geophysical methods were based on empirical relationship between Seismic Cone Penetration Test (SCPT) and Cone Penetration Test (CPT) method. New geological concept namely CPI model have been developed and applied in mathematical and engineering strains to study shear strain function. Modeling of the mathematical shear strain is done by halving the stratum index factor (SIF). The different types of responses of CPI model are discussed and classified based on numerical methods using degree of settlement and degree of consolidation. The results show that shear strain amplitude or mathematical shear strain is constant by using the modified CPI method where mathematical shear strain indicated is half of the stratum index factor and engineering shear strain indicated is equal to the stratum index factor. The other major al area. Last major finding involves the cyclic variation of Poisson Ratio which indicates the anisotropic properties of soft cohesive soil.

  5. DETERMINED SOIL CHARACTERISTIC OF PALU IN INDONESIA BY USING MICROTREMOR OBSERVATION Download Article

    Rusnardi Rahmat Putra, Junji Kiyono, Yasuo Yoshimoto, Yusuke Ono and Syahril
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1737-1742)
    • No of Download = 1170

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    The Palu city, which is located in the active seismic zone of the Palu-Koro fault. Several powerful earthquakes have struck Palu city at previous years. One of the greatest earthquake event occurred in year 2006 which 6.2 Mw, about more a hundred buildings and houses were collapsed due to this earthquake. Palu-Koro fault also produced several tsunami events in year of 1927, 1968 and 1996. The latest earthquake struck Palu on 2012 (7.2 Mw) and it produced local tsunami. Since no soil profile map of Palu region available, we performed single observations of microtremors at 122 sites in Palu. Its results enabled us to estimate the site-dependent amplification characteristics of earthquake ground-motion. We also conducted a 8-site microtremor array investigation to gain a representative determination of the soil condition of subsurface structures in Palu. From the dispersion curve of array observations, the central business district of Palu corresponds to relatively from soft soil to medium condition. Predominant periods due to horizontal vertical ratios (HVSRs) in Palu are in the range of 1.2 to 2.5 s.

  6. CBR VALUE OF SANDY SUBGRADE BLENDED WITH COARSE AGGREGATE Download Article

    Kesharwani R.S., Sahu A. K. and Khan N.U.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1743-1750)
    • No of Download = 10726

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    In several parts of India, soil deposits consist of a matrix like soil with inclusions of coarser aggregates of various sizes. The CBR test is used for the design of sub grade for highways & pavement. Therefore in the present investigation, the CBR tests were carried out on the sand blended with coarse aggregates of various sizes and proportions. To strengthen the sub grade strata, coarse aggregates of 10mm and 20mm sizes were mixed in the sand, in various proportions. The soil samples were prepared and tested first without coarse aggregates, then by mixing coarse aggregates in varying percentages by weight, starting from 5% to 30%. The results of CBR tests shows that with the increase in the percentage of coarse aggregates, the CBR value of the soil increases. It is observed that the percentage improvements in the CBR values ranges from 20.99 % to 115.83% and 31.30% to 151.94% for 10mm and 20mm coarse aggregates respectively at OMC. In soaked condition, this improvement ranges from 23.20% to 202.48% and 31.35% to 233.17% for 10mm and 20mm coarse aggregates respectively.

  7. DOSES REGULATION IN ANAEROBIC TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER: THE CASE OF A MOROCCAN PAPER INDUSTRY Download Article

    Tkiouat Chafiq
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1751-1755)
    • No of Download = 551

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    Since 2012, Moroccan kingdom had established new laws concerning the regulation of the waste water quality that should require certain qualifications to be thrown to nature. The problem was that by making the choice of having an anaerobic treatment trough an UASB (for Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) to get rid of the pollution we were confronted to an important sensitivity related to the dosing of the different reagents made to regulate the nutrition of the anaerobic cultures which ensure the pollution degradation. This paper was made to reduce the gap between the doses of reagents that are injected in every stage of the treatment and the doses that should be injected to insure the environmental requirement at the output of the station by considering the HRT “hydraulic retention time” and the large variability of the waste water composition that heads to the station, normally we can’t rely on the analyses made at the output of the treatment to adjust the doses that’s why we chose to combine the analyses made at the input of the treatment with the ratios mentioned earlier to find a way to adjust the doses to avoid an excessive injection or a lack of nutriment that may reduce the effectiveness of the treatment. This way, it will be economically and environmentally optimized to correct the doses just in time according to the input composition of the waste water.

  8. EFFECT OF GEOGRID REINFORCEMENT ON INTERFACE FOR A STRATIFIED EMBANKMENT Download Article

    Danny Useche Infante, Gonzalo Aiassa Martinez, Pedro Arrúa and Marcelo Eberhardt
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1756-1763)
    • No of Download = 1078

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    ABSTRACT: Reinforced granular embankments are often placed on soft soil strata for an efficient and economical transfer of superstructure load. This paper describes laboratory tests on circular footing supported on unreinforced and geogrid-reinforced granular soil. Two types of geogrid layer, uniaxial and biaxial geogrid, were placed at the interface of sub-base soil and granular base of an embankment formed on soft ground to support shallow foundations. Load test were conducted with the aim to determine the performance improvement of the circular footing due to the provision of both types of geogrid reinforcement in the soil. Also studied the effect produced by anchoring geogrid layer at the edge of the mold sample. The results showed that the inclusion of a geogrid layer at the interface of sub-base soil and granular base increase the magnitude of the footing bearing capacity and decreases the settlement of the system. The study shows that the type of geogrid used has direct influence on stress-strain behavior of soil-geogrid system and better results occurred when the geogrid was anchored to test mold.

  9. STABILITY CHARTS FOR A TALL TUNNEL IN UNDRAINED CLAY Download Article

    Jim Shiau, Mathew Sams and Jing Chen
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1764-1769)
    • No of Download = 1196

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    The stability of a plane strain tall rectangular tunnel in undrained clay is investigated in this paper using shear strength reduction technique. The finite difference program FLAC is used to determine the factor of safety for unsupported tall rectangular tunnels. Numerical results are compared with upper and lower bound limit solutions, and the comparison finds a very good agreement with solutions to be within 5% difference. Design charts for tall rectangular tunnels are then presented for a wide range of practical scenarios using dimensionless ratios ~ a similar approach to Taylor’s slope stability chart. A number of typical examples are presented to illustrate the potential usefulness for practicing engineers. 

  10. SEISMIC EFFECTIVE STRESS ANALYSIS OF QUAY WALL IN LIQUEFIABLE SOIL: THE CASE HISTORY OF KOBE Download Article

    Christos Souliotis and Nikos Gerolymos
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1770-1775)
    • No of Download = 1357

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     During the previous decades, a significant number of failures of caisson quay walls have been observed. In particular, the majority of these failures are strongly connected to the deformational response of the surrounding (i.e. the backfill and the foundation) soil deposits subject to liquefaction. In this paper, the seismic effective stress analysis method is applied in order to investigate this complex phenomenon, through the use of the UBC3D-PLM constitutive model for stress-strain soil behaviour, which is available in the material library of the PLAXIS finite element code. An optimization procedure is presented for calibrating the parameters of the aforementioned constitutive model, which involves a two-step methodology based on matching: (a) the response of a single soil element under undrained monotonic direct simple shear loading reproduced by a recently developed more sophisticated model for sand, and (b) the cyclic resistance ratio curve in accordance with the NCEER/NSF procedure. The capability of the model in describing the response of a gravity-type quay wall undergoing lateral spreading due to soil liquefaction is then validated against a well-documented case history from the 1995 Kobe earthquake. The latter analysis is shown to reproduce satisfactory engineering accuracy in comparison to the observed response, shedding light to the validity of the proposed calibration methodology.

  11. STUDY ON TUNNELING FOR UNDERGROUND METRO RAIL SYSTEM IN DHAKA CITY Download Article

    Fariha Azam, Mohammad Shariful Islam and Hossain Md. Shahin
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1776-1783)
    • No of Download = 1973

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    In this research, the prospect of tunneling by cut and cover and New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM) for underground metro rail system in Dhaka city was evaluated. Both conventional analysis and 2D finite element analysis using an elasto-plastic constitutive model named as subloading tij considering plane strain drained condition were performed. A comparison was made between results obtained from conventional analysis and numerical analysis for braced cuts. The behavior of different types of soil layers are simulated. Effects of different loading conditions and presence of water table have been considered for both cut and cover and NATM excavation method. Comparing the results of different foundation types, it has been found that for shallow foundation the surface settlement at the position of the foundation is larger than that for pile foundation. From analyses, it was revealed that for greenfield like Tongi to Uttara along the MRT-4, cut and cover is more appropriate considering its simplicity in execution and NATM is preferable at flyover junction points in Cantonment and structurally obstructed places.

  12. A STUDY FOR SEISMIC IMPROVEMENT OF CONCRETE FRAME WITH PERFORATED WALLS Download Article

    Ryota Ishii and Tetsuya Ohmura
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1784-1789)
    • No of Download = 679

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    The Japanese building standard act was revised in 1981 considered non-linearity. However, a number of buildings built before 1981 are existing, seismic evaluations for those building have actively been assessed based on the seismic evaluation standard published by The Japan Building Disaster Prevention Association after especially 1995 Kobe Earthquake. In practical seismic evaluation works, it is relatively simple and easy to make models of general buildings, but unconventional frames are complex such as a staircase or a frame with different level girders. A perforated concrete wall is modeled as a shear wall, if the opening ratio is 0.4 and less. On the other hand, one with more than the opening ratio of 0.4 is modeled as a column with a wing wall. The modeling concept is simplified to smoothly assess the seismic performance of a building even though it is not confirmed that the models is suited to their actual behavior. In this paper, FE analyses were performed, and their results were examined. Finally, partially closing the openings down to an opening ratio of at least 0.4 is recommended because seismic slits could fail to work well.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF THE HYDRAULIC EFFICIENCY OF SAND - NATURAL EXPANSIVE CLAY MIXTURES Download Article

    Abdullah A. Shaker and Tamer Y. Elkady
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1790-1795)
    • No of Download = 797

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    The aim of this study is to evaluate the hydraulic performance of a sand-natural expansive clay mixture in comparison with sand-bentonite mixture. Natural expansive clay used in this study was obtained from Al-Qatif region, Saudi Arabia. The saturated hydraulic conductivity was evaluated for different mixtures of sand-Al Qatif clay with clay contents ranging from 10% to 60% clay. Similarly, the saturated hydraulic conductivity of sand-bentonite mixtures with different bentonite contents (0%, 5%, 10% and 20%) was also evaluated. All hydraulic conductivity tests were performed under different confining pressures. Test results revealed that sand-Al-Qatif clay mixtures can perform adequately as a hydraulic barrier; however, with Al-Qatif clay contents greater than that used for sand-bentonite mixtures. This is attributed to difference between clay mineralogy between Al-Qatif clay and bentonite. In addition a quantitative approach is proposed to assess the hydraulic conductivity of sand-Al-Qatif clay mixtures in comparison to that for sand-bentonite mixtures. Finally, soil fabric of mixtures was examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM) technique to observe differences in fabric between sand-Al-Qatif clay and sand-bentonite mixtures.

  14. ARSENIC RELEASE PROCESSES INTO CONFINED AQUIFERS OF THE SEINO BASINS, NOBI PLAIN, JAPAN Download Article

    Yusuke Kawai, Masahiko Katoh, Ryuki Mori, Yu Otake and Takeshi Sato
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1796-1803)
    • No of Download = 629

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     To understand the mechanisms of arsenic release from the sediment of the Seino Basins, Nobi Plain, Japan, the present study investigated the characteristics of arsenic dissolution and arsenic phases in the sediments of the G1 and G2 aquifers and their upper layers. No significant, direct positive relationship between the total and water-soluble arsenic was found. The results of sequential extraction showed that the main sources of water-soluble arsenic were the non-specifically and weakly bound arsenic phases. In addition, a small portion of the arsenic specifically sorbed on the surface of the sediment was dissolved by water extraction. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that high pH, total arsenic content, and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) content strongly contributed to the enhancement of arsenic release from the specifically bound arsenic fraction. These results suggest that high levels of total and non-specifically bound arsenic are responsible for higher levels of arsenic release. In addition, high pH and WSOC content facilitate arsenic release.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF A PROBABILISTIC LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL MAP FOR METRO MANILA Download Article

    Dungca, Jonathan R. and Chua, Renz Anderson D.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1804-1809)
    • No of Download = 689

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    The study aimed to create a probabilistic liquefaction potential map for Metro Manila to help prepare for future calamities.  A liquefaction opportunity map was produced by computing the probability of an earthquake with a moment magnitude of at least 5.2 from occurring.  Historical data were gathered from 7 surrounding active faults within a 150 km radius of Metro Manila to determine their recurrence.  A liquefaction susceptibility map was also developed by taking into consideration the conditions of the soil.  Approximately 1000+ borehole logs scattered across Metro Manila was used in developing this map.  These two maps were then combined to create the probabilistic liquefaction potential map.  The results show that there is only a 2% chance of an earthquake capable of triggering a liquefaction occurring in a given year but in 50 years, there is a 10% chance of exceedance coming from an earthquake with an acceleration of 0.7g.  The earthquake is most likely to come from the Valley Fault System which runs straight through Metro Manila. 

  16. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF RESTORED ENDANGERED SPECIES, PENTHORUM CHINENSE IN THE RIVERBED Download Article

    Michiko Masuda and Fumitake Nishimura
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1810-1814)
    • No of Download = 759

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    The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport has done the business of digging on the river road to increase the flowing quantity of Ibi River every year since 2000. It is reported to the dug region the Penthorum chinense populations which is the threatened species the restored in 2001. Digging is done from 2000 to 2010 every year. Therefore, we investigated P. chinesne population of which extent to which region grew. As a result, it was shown some the growth of the plant of 200 individuals in the 2002 digging region, 4000 individuals in the 2001 digging region and 1000 individuals in the 2000 digging region, and so on. Though it is thought that the population formed in 2000 is seed bank origin, whether the populations formed in 2001 and later the burial seed origin or formed with the seed of an existing population, it is uncertain. Then we sampled 8 populations of the species form these areas, and studied them for allelic variation at 16 enzyme loci. There was no significant correlation between the actual population size and genetic diversity parameters, suggesting that the effective population size was very small even for the large populations. However, population that restored at the riverbed and population that approved on the embankment were able to distinguish obviously in the populations that had been approved in 2002. As for the population approved to the embankment, it was shown that genetic variation was very high in the population approved to the riverbed thought it was hardly admitted. 

  17. GNOMON AS SOURCE OF INFORMATION ON PLANET RHYTHMS Download Article

    Alina Paranina
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1815-1821)
    • No of Download = 580

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    For millennia, humans have been using the gnomon whose shadow passes the trajectory of the light source (sun or moon) as a measurement tool. With the gnomon authors prove that the ancient stone labyrinths in Northern Europe are solar calendars, sundials and compasses. Studies of cultural heritage around the world show that the majority of them might serve as orientation in space-time. According to the authors, the collection of ancient navigational facilities can be considered as ancient astronomical and geodetic network and as a record of astronomical history of the planet. For systemic analysis of this information it is necessary to create a base of paleo-astronomical data. The acquired information may be useful for studies of the history of the Earth and the history of science: the dynamics of changes of inclination of the Earth's axis, offset of the polar circles and the tropics, the characteristics of long-period rhythms of the planet, the evolution of climatic environments and the development of navigation technologies of the past. In addition, the creation of a network of solar observatories, with the technique of automatic registration shadow or a ray of light, will provide objective information on the solar-terrestrial relations and rhythms of nature.

  18. SOIL SHEAR MODULUS FROM RESONANT COLUMN, TORSIONAL SHEAR AND BENDER ELEMENT TESTS Download Article

    Zsolt Szilvágyi, Péter Hudacsek and Richard P. Ray
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1822-1827)
    • No of Download = 1555

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    This study compares results from three different testing methods: Resonant Column, Torsional Simple Shear, and Bender Element tests to determine shear modulus. The resonant column and torsional shear tests were performed on the same hollow cylinder specimen. The bender element test was performed on a triaxial specimen with the same void ratio and confining stress as well as others. Several effects were studied, among them confining stress, shear strain amplitude and for the bender element, anisotropic confinement. Testing methods and data analysis are discussed in the paper because data interpretation is very important in these tests. Results showed that the shear modulus values were almost identical between the resonant column and torsional shear but varied somewhat with the bender element results. Further research will focus on influence of stress anisotropy preparation methods.

  19. PREDICTION OF SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION ON SOIL SURVEYING VALUES USING GEOSTASTICS METHODS Download Article

    Shinya Inazumi, Kohei Urakami, Satoru Ohtsuka, Osamu Saeki and Ken-ichi Shishido
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1828-1833)
    • No of Download = 801

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    Recently, land subsidence and liquefaction are becoming evident. But neither the countermeasure
    nor research technique have not been established. In order to determine the cause, more detailed comprehension of soil properties is essential; therefore, in this research new-typed Swedish sounding testing machine (the NSWS testing machine), capable of measuring more detailed physical properties of in-ground was utilized and conducted a subsurface investigation at a narrow detailed house at which land subsurface have occurred. Based on the result of the investigation presented physical properties of the in-ground in the plane manner using Kriging method, one of geostatistics methods. Also, the comparison of converted N-value measured by the NSWS and converted N-value estimated by Kriging method is presented to examine the composite capability and benefit of Kriging method and NSWS for simplified on-site verification and re-measurement for reaffirmation (diagonal measurement) in the confined detached house ground.