Articles

  1. NUMERICAL SOLUTION OF SOIL - FOUNDATION INTERACTION AND COMPARISON OF RESULTS WITH EXPERIMETAL MEASUREMENTS Download Article

    Radim Cajka, Jana Labudkova, Petr Mynarcik
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2116-2122)
    • No of Download = 961

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    Several experimental measurements of reinforced concrete slab – subsoil interaction are compared with numerical analysis of shallow foundation by means of FEM.  At the Faculty of Civil Engineering VSB – Technical University of Ostrava testing device was constructed so that the phenomena of soil – foundation interaction could be experimentally investigated and compared with numerical models. Results of experimental loading test are compared with soil – foundation interaction analysis based on finite element method (FEM). The purpose of this paper is to compare resulting deformation of the slab, subsidence of the subsoil, bending moments and contact stress calculated by different software based on FEM. Currently there are several software that, can deal with the interaction of foundations and subsoil.

  2. EFFECT OF ADSORPTION CONDITION ON THERMAL STABILITY OF PROTEINS ADSORBED ONTO BIOMASS CHARCOAL POWDER Download Article

    Hidetaka Noritomi, Shunichi Kurihara, Nobuyuki Endo, Satoru Kato and Katsumi Uchiyama
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2123-2128)
    • No of Download = 552

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    Authors have found out that bamboo charcoal powder (BCP), which is prepared from bamboo wastes by pyrolysis at low temperatures, is very useful as a carrier for the thermal stabilization of proteins. Hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and α-chymotrypsin (CT) were effectively adsorbed onto BCP. The thermal stability of BCP-adsorbed HEWL was strongly dependent upon the adsorption conditions such as solution pH, ionic strength, and temperature. Moreover, writers have revealed the heat-resistant mechanism on the basis of the structure of HEWL. Likewise, the thermal stability of BCP-adsorbed CT could be enhanced by selecting the adsorption condition.

  3. EVALUATION OF DISPERSION MODEL PERFORMANCE IN PREDICTING SO2 CONCENTRATIONS FROM PETROLEUM REFINERY COMPLEX Download Article

    Sarawut Thepanondh, Pantitcha Outapa and Suwadi Saikomol
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2129-2135)
    • No of Download = 630

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    The AERMOD and CALPUFF air dispersion models are tested for their performance in predicting ground level concentration of sulfur dioxide in Thailand. Emission data used in this study are obtained from petroleum refinery complex. Predicted results are compared with those measured data using the year 2012 as a reference year. A set of statistical parameters are employed to evaluate model performance. Overall results indicated that both AERMOD and CALPUFF can provide good results. However, AERMOD can perform better in predicting of extreme end of the concentration distribution at the receptor sites. The maximum ground level concentrations of sulfur dioxide within the modeling domain are about 359 and 456 µg/m3 for AERMOD and CALPUFF simulations, respectively. This result indicates that CALPUFF provides more conservative of maximum result than predicted data from AERMOD. The decision to select an appropriate dispersion model in the study is accomplish by using the Multi-Criteria Attribute (MCA) analysis. Result from MCA supports that AERMOD is more appropriate to be applied for study of air dispersion in this area than CALPUFF system.

  4. VEGETATION SUCCESSION ON CUT SLOPES COVERED WITH EXOTIC GRASSES FOR EROSION CONTROL, MT. SAKURAJIMA Download Article

    Kentaro Kondo, Taizo Uchida, Daisuke Hayasaka, Jun Tanaka, Akio Sato and Teruo Arase
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2136-2142)
    • No of Download = 633

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    The utilization of exotic grasses as cover plants for erosion control has received considerable attention in recent years, particularly because these exotic grasses have the potential to become invasive. This study examined succession of exotic grass communities that have been established on the cut slopes of the volcano, Mt. Sakurajima. The results showed that although the exotic grasses, such as Cynodon dactylon, Festuca rubra and Dactylis glomerata, that have been used for erosion control on the cut slopes were dominant for the first two years, marked decreases were observed as the native herbaceous plant, Miscanthus sinensis, became dominant after three years. By the sixth year, all of the exotic grasses vanished completely. This high rate of succession would result in the suppression of exotic grass dispersal on Mt. Sakurajima. It was also suggested that the chemical properties of volcanic soils, and the bio-engineering technique employed on Mt. Sakurajima may facilitate this high rate of succession.

  5. EVALUATION OF HARGREAVES BASED ON REMOTE SENSING METHOD TO ESTIMATE POTENTIAL CROP EVAPOTRANSPIRATION Download Article

    Mohammed A. El-Shirbeny, Bassam Abdellatif, Abd-Elraouf M. Ali, Nasser H. Saleh
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2143-2149)
    • No of Download = 7409

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    In arid and semi-arid regions, agricultural water consumption information is very important to managing and developing water resources. Potential crop evapotranspiration (ETc) is the major parameter in agricultural water resources management. Remote sensing techniques were involved in this work to evaluate Hargreaves method for estimating ETc depending on satellite data. The difference between air temperature (Tair) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) varies particularly by surface water status. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was extracted from NOAA/AVHRR and landsat8 satellite data to calculate emissivity as an intermediate step for producing LST. Linear relation between Tair and LST was established and R2 was 0.93. Reference evapotranspiration (ETo) was estimated using agro-meteorological data through FAO-Penman-Monteith (FPM) which used as standard method and Hargreaves (Har) method. To calibrate ETo-Har, the ETo-FPM was used under the same conditions. Landsat8 data acquired on 13th of Aug. and 08th of Aug. 2014 and were used to calculate Crop coefficient (Kc) based on satellite data (Kc-Sat). LST was used to predict Tair (oC) in Aug. 2014. ETo estimated using Har method and was used with Kc-Sat to estimate ETc-Har. ETo-FPM combined with Kc-Sat to estimate ETc-FPM. ETc-FPM used to evaluate ETc-Har. The relation between ETc-FPM and ETc-Har was very strong where R2 as high as 0.99. 

  6. DIELECTRIC SPECTROSCOPY ON MIXTURE OF RICE HUSK, RICE HUSK ASH AND RICE BRAN FROM 4 Hz TO 1 MHz Download Article

    S. F. Khor, M. H. A. Md Yusoff, E. M. Cheng, M. A. Rojan, B. Johar, A. Chik, Z. A. Talib, B. Poobalan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2150-2154)
    • No of Download = 589

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     In this study, mixtures of rice husk/rice husk ashes (RHA) with RB on different ratios were prepared. Dielectric permittivity (), loss factor () and AC conductivity () were measured in the frequency range of 4 Hz to 1 MHz in ambient temperature. Results for mixture of RHA and RB indicate that a dipolar relaxation occurring between 103 – 105 Hz and the peak is depressed and shifted to lower frequency as the RB content increases in the mixture. Moreover, AC conductivity decreases as the RB content increase. This may attributed to production of natural oil content from RB. In contrast, a dielectric characteristic for RH is generally not affected by the RB contents. This study explore dielectric characteristic of mixture between RH/RHA and RB in low frequency range because lack of literature is reported on low frequency response. Additionally, the potential application of RH/RHA and RB could be explored in effort to diminish waste disposal and enhance environmental protection.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF LOCAL LAND USE ON THE WATER QUALITY OF URBAN RIVERS Download Article

    Juan Carlos Covarrubia, Scott Rayburg and Melissa Neave
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2155-2161)
    • No of Download = 865

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    Urban river flows are often highly variable and extremely polluted, which limits their potential for recreational use and as habitat for terrestrial and aquatic organisms. This study investigates how different urban landuses are reflected in the water quality of a specific river. To accomplish this, the study adopts a longitudinal approach and assesses water quality at multiple points along a single system that has three distinct land uses: 1) rural and agricultural; 2) residential; and 3) industrial. The study shows that water quality is relatively good in the rural and agricultural region, shows signs of impairment in the residential region, and becomes heavily impaired in the industrial region—despite having very similar stream side environments (good riparian vegetation cover and a floodway reserve) for its entire length. This study identifies which portions of the catchment are most responsible for non-point source pollution in urban rivers and therefore can be used to target remediation strategies to help improve the overall quality of these systems. 

  8. ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY OF AIR POLLUTANTS IN AN AREA OF THE LARGEST PETROCHEMICAL COMPLEX IN THAILAND Download Article

    Apiwat Thawonkaew, Sarawut Thepanondh, Duanpen Sirithian and Lasita Jinawa
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2162-2169)
    • No of Download = 617

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    Assimilative capacities of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in the largest petrochemical industrial complex in Thailand were evaluated in this study. AERMOD dispersion model was simulated to compute for ground level concentrations and spatial distributions of SO2 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) within a radius of 5 km from Maptaphut industrial area. Emission input consisted of 419 stacks which total amount of 2,071.82 and 2,163.66 g/s of SO2 and NOx were used as baseline emissions. Maximum hourly average and annual concentrations predicted at 8 ambient air quality monitoring stations in the study domain were used to evaluate an assimilative capacity of these pollutants. Emissions of SO2 and NOx were adjusted to the limit that predicted concentrations will not exceed their ambient air quality standards. Results indicated that in order to achieve both hourly and annual standards, NOx emissions must be reduced by at least 40% from its baseline value. As for SO2, emissions can be increased up to about 130% from current level. Results of this study indicated that an existing regulation in controlling individual emission source by using emission standard is insufficient. Analysis of air pollution as area-based approach by taking into consideration entire emission sources can support for better planning and management of pollution.

  9. TOXIC EFFECT AND MECHANISMS OF NANOPARTICLES ON FRESHWATER INFUSORIA Download Article

    Kosyan D.B., Rusakova E.A., Sizova E.A., Yausheva E.V. and Miroshnikov S.A.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2170-2176)
    • No of Download = 1081

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    Nanoparticle toxicology works toward establishing the hazard of nanoparticles, and therefore their potential risk, in light of the increased use of exposure. The current study was research proper characterization of the nanoparticles for understanding of their toxic effects and mechanisms at the cellular level. Dose and time as a main parameters is essential in hazard identification and risk assessment of nanomaterials. Material for the evaluation of toxic effects was used 20 samples of commercially available and laboratory preparations of metals and nanocarbon, divided into main groups: carbon nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and metal nanoparticles in different concentration. Fresh water infusoria stylonychia mytilus (wild strain) in exponential growth phase was used as the test object. Analysis of data on oxides of the metals showed higher toxicity than metal nanoparticles. In groups the maximum toxicity was observed in iron oxides (Fe3O4, Fe2O3), copper (CuO) and molybdenum (MoO3) (0,1; 0,025; 0,0125 М) after 24 hours of incubation with the test object Analysis of the effect of metal nanoparticles on the cells of infusoria showed that the maximum toxic effect was observed when exposed to Cu, Fe, Ag (0,025- 0,0015625 М). Statistical analyses showed a high correlation between concentration and time (P≤0,001). The issue of accessibility of nanomaterials released in the environment for living organisms has been poorly studied. The toxic effects of nanoparticles can be associated with their size and their physicochemical properties.

  10. ZOOPLANKTON AND PHYTOPLANKTON IN ALL ANOXIC LAYERS OF LAKE FUKAMI-IKE Download Article

    Hiromi Suda, Masaaki Tanaka, Megumi Nobori and Akihiko Yagi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2177-2181)
    • No of Download = 602

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     Lake Fukami-ike is a small monomictic and eutrophic lake, located in southern Nagano Prefecture in Central Japan. An uncommon phenomenon of dissolved oxygen 0-1 mgL-1 from the surface to the bottom layer occurred on 16 November, 2013. On November 2, Trichocerca similis (Rotatoria) etc. dominantly distributed from 0-5 m depth depending on distribution DO concentration. Tintinnopsis lacustris (Protozoa) was found in the bottom layer (anoxic condition). The number of cells (Fragilaria rumpens (Bacillariophyceae) etc. abounded from the 0-5 m layer. On November 16, T. lacustris distributed from the surface to the bottom layer. Then, T. lacustris continued to distribute from the surface to the bottom layer, and the genus Synedra was found to have distributed uniformly from the surface to 6 m depth in the next investigation on 21 December, when the DO concentration was about 10 mgL-1 from the surface to the bottom layer. The changes in vertical distribution of T. lacustris, seemed to indicate that lake water was lifted from the bottom layer when shift stagnation periods to circulation periods.

  11. METHODS OF ESTIMATING ENERGY DEMAND AND CO2 EMISSIONS FOR INTER-REGIONAL ROAD TRANSPORT Download Article

    Marloe B. Sundo, Karl N. Vergel, Ricardo G. Sigua and Jose Regin F. Regidor
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2182-2187)
    • No of Download = 575

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    Carbon dioxide (CO2) from the transport sector is by far considered as the major contributor of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission into the atmosphere. Many transport engineers and planners nowadays have shifted focus on the development of new approaches or tools that provide fast and reliable means of assessing different transportation strategies to achieve low-carbon transportation system. In this study, a new mathematical Origin-Destination (O-D) approach of estimating energy demand and CO2 emissions is presented using inter-regional passenger and freight flow data. The lengths of three major road segments were used as independent variables to model fuel consumption for buses and trucks. The estimated energy demand under business as usual (BAU) scenario was compared to five different low-carbon policy scenarios. Study shows that the energy demand from inter-regional public buses and freight road transport under BAU scenario substantially increased from 6,358.86ktoe in 2015 to 36,410.43ktoe in 2050. These findings equate to 19.71 and 112.93 Megatons of CO2 emissions in 2015 and 2050, respectively. Results also show that shifting to low-carbon alternative fuel such as Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) for buses and trucks provide the highest reduction in the overall inter-regional CO2 emissions as compared other policy measures. Simultaneous implementation of the three selected policy measures would substantially reduce the CO2 emissions by almost two-third (74.24%) in 2050.

  12. EFFECT OF REINFORCEMENT ON IMPROVE SURFACE PAVEMENT FOR WEAK SUBGRADE CONDITIONS Download Article

    Saad F. Ibrahim, Namir G. Ahmed and Dhuha E. Mohammed
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2188-2193)
    • No of Download = 1314

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    A pavement structure consists of several layers for the primary purpose of transmitting and distributing traffic loads to the subgrade. Rutting is one form of pavement distresses that may influence the performance of road pavements. Soft subgrade soils are distinguished by their low undrianed shear strength and high compressibility. The effect of geogrid and steel mesh to improve the performance pavement is experimentally investigated and evaluated. To compare the experimental and analytical outputs, three dimensions finite element throughout models using ABAQUS ver.6.12.3 software are developed to simulate and analyze the relations between the cycling load and deformation of the suggested pavement modes. Based on the results and the limitation of this study it is concluded that, using geogrid and steel mesh in pavement layers leads to increases in load carrying capacity and decrease the permanent deformation in surface pavement for (1000) cycles load by (27.3%) and (18.3%) respectively, as compared with unreinforced model. The results of ABAQUS program are very close to results of laboratory tests.

  13. CONVERSION OF SLUDGE FROM A WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT TO A FERTILIZER Download Article

    Catherine N. Mulligan and Mehdi Sharifi-Nistanak
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2194-2199)
    • No of Download = 996

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    Preventing wastage of resources is an important priority for sustainability. Sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is such a resource that it often wasted. It is a source of nutrients and organic materials that can be used as a fertilizer. At a waste water treatment plant in Montreal, the sludge is currently incinerated and sent for disposal. Alternatives to the practice are thus desirable. Elevated concentrations of cadmium, copper, cobalt and selenium are found in the sludge and therefore a treatment process is required before use as a fertilizer according to the Province of Quebec regulations. Leaching was selected as there is potential for heavy metal removal. However, nutrient loss must be minimized to preserve its use as a fertilizer. To meet these goals, a new leaching agent (K2HPO4) was proposed, and investigated for heavy metal removal efficiency on the sludge. A correlation of heavy metal removal and preserved nutrient concentration with time and pH was found. Removal efficiencies of cadmium, copper, cobalt and selenium of 80%, 44%, 70% and 93%, respectively were determined. In addition, concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of 17%, 17% and 25%, respectively, resulted in the treated sludge. In conclusion, the use of dipotassium phosphate is an effective leaching method to remove heavy metals and simultaneously increase the primary macro nutrients at an acceptable cost.

  14. EFFECT OF SPEED ON EMISSIONS OF AIR POLLUTANTS IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT: CASE STUDY OF TRUCK EMISSIONS Download Article

    Pantitcha Outapa, Akira Kondo and Sarawut Thepanondh
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2200-2207)
    • No of Download = 626

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    Dynamic emission factors and emission inventories of CO, VOC, VOCevap., NOx, SOx and PM of truck in Bangkok, Thailand were developed using IVE (International vehicle emission) model for the year 2012 to 2024. The year 2012 was chosen as base year since fuel quality had been improved from Euro II to Euro IV standard from that year. Speed of truck driven in study area was chosen as variable parameter for sensitivity analysis of its influence to the emissions of air pollutants because there are no further plans in upgrading or improvement of fuel quality during this period. Truck’s Bangkok driving cycle was used as input data in the IVE model. Average speeds used in the model simulation were varied from existing condition (15 km/hr) to the maximum of 80 km/hr. It was found that an average speed of 40 km/hr was the optimal speed in reducing of air pollutants emitted from truck. At this speed, reduction of emission factors of air pollutants as compared with current average velocity of 15 km/hr were about 46%, 54%, 16%, 51%, 53% and 27% for CO, VOC, VOCevap., NOx, SOx and PM, respectively. Therefore, efforts in increasing average speed of at least to about 40 km/hr can be used as a measure to achieve the sustainable transport particularly in the green logistic businesses. 

  15. GEOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF LATE PALEOGENE SYNRIFT SOURCE ROCKS IN THE SOUTH SUMATRA BASIN Download Article

    Edy Sutriyono, Endang Wiwik Dyah Hastuti and Budhi Kuswan Susilo
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2208-2215)
    • No of Download = 1469

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    The potential of Late Paleogene synrift source rocks in generating hydrocarbons within the South Sumatra basin has been evaluated using geochemical and pyrolytic techniques. The samples were collected from the outcropping shales of different layers constituting the Upper Oligocene Talang Akar Formation. Results of TOC analysis reveal minor quantities of organic carbons, indicating poor to fair potential source rocks. The S2/S3 ratios indicate two apparent kerogen types. The majority of the samples is type III kerogen; however, there appears minor type IV kerogen, implying the oxydized organic matter and no expulsion. The S1+S2 measurement of all the pyrolysed rocks, except one sample LP 12A, yields less than 1 mg HC/g rock, supporting the proposed scenario of little potential to generate hydrocarbons. Evaluation of hydrogen and oxygen indices confirms a gas prone source, but all the shales analyzed, disregarding one sample LP 18, provide a direct evidence that the rock section is immature to early mature to expel oil. Important notes can be made that the early stage of organic maturation might have occurred due to heating, as a result of deeper burial during Miocene time prior to the subsequent uplift in response to the Plio-Pleistocene orogeny.

  16. USE OF SI-PHYTOLITHS IN DEPOLLUTION OF MINING AREAS IN THE CERRADO-CAATINGA REGION, MG, BRAZIL Download Article

    Heloiza Márcia Fernandes-Horn, Regynaldo Arruda Sampaio, Adolf Heinrich Horn, Ely Sandra Alves de Oliveira, Igo Fernando Lepsch & Essaid Bilal
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2216-2221)
    • No of Download = 782

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    Treating of metal contaminated areas became a very important problem with increasing industrial and agricultural activities. Many of the used methods are very expensive, need intensive human interaction or have a very negative influence on the cleaned regions. The use of Si-Phytoliths is a simple, low cost and a very effective way to obtain good results in low contaminated or as the final process in highly contaminated places. The method is based on the fact that plants produce Si-Phytoliths and trap significant quantities of heavy metals in these amorphous to microcrystalline structures. The solubility of the Si-Phytoliths under tropical soil conditions is lower than that of the heavy elements brought directly in the soil by wash-fall out, or by degrading of organic parts of the plants on the surface. In this way, it is possible to retain liberation to the environment from short to long periods and attend environmental laws and norms. Initial tests with different plants like Ricinus comunis L., Andropogon arundinaceus Willd., Zea Mays L., Brachiaria sp. L. and Saccharum officinarum L. planted on substrates with metal concentrations (Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, Ba, Hg, S) have shown that the plants absorbed elements and quantities in the different parts like leaves, roots, stems, flowers and fruits. This allows a selective use due to contamination varieties and a possible economic use of parts of the plants and an effective planning of the decontamination conditions.

  17. THE LINKS BETWEEN LAND USE AND WATER QUALITY FOR FRESHWATER PEARL MUSSEL, MARGARITIFERA MARGARITIFERA, IN THE RIVER SOUTH ESK, SCOTLAND Download Article

    Le Ma
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2222-2227)
    • No of Download = 788

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    The freshwater pearl mussel, Margaritifera margaritifera, is an endangered species and its population has decreased rapidly over the last century. Scotland is the home to half of the known populations of M. margaritifera. Land use is a significant factor affecting water quality as well as the distribution of freshwater pearl mussels. Thirty eight sites in River South Esk were selected to investigate the impacts of land use on water conductivity, pH and the concentration of nitrate and phosphorus on the distribution of mussels. M. margaritifera was more abundant in habitats in woodland with low and stable water nutrient level. Water chemical analysis indicates that pollutant concentration is related to the vegetation of river catchments. River water passing woodland has a relatively better quality and overhanging boughs of trees create shadows which attract mussels. Livestock pasture catchments seem to have less significant chemical effects, but animal activities may disturb the habitat of mussels and increase water turbidity. Water pollution in irrigated crop land is relatively higher. Heather moorland is of less concern because of its inappropriate channel type for mussels. Waters in the vicinity of housing, roads and bridges seem to be avoided by mussels. Margaritifera margaritifera did not show any preference on the type of shadows. Living mussels have been discovered at the sites which have shadows created by overhanging branches or high riverbanks. 

  18. INDUCED EARTHQUAKES CORRELATIONS WITH EARTH’S CRUSTAL THICKNESS Download Article

    Marilia Hagen
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2228-2234)
    • No of Download = 757

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    In this paper, we carried out an investigation about the possible causes for enhancement of earthquakes in USA over the last seven years. From our calculations, indications set forth that the increased evolution of the quakes in the country is due to the human actions. For further analysis, we divided the country into three main seismological regions: western, central and, eastern. We roughly classified the areas by their thickness of Earth’s crust in a variation 25-45-25 km.  The thickest area is in the mid- continent and most of this region are part of the Great Plains. In our study, we are going to investigate the reason for the Mississippi Lime in Oklahoma a very thick area, started an unusual earthquake activity since 2010, most at Oklahoma/ Kansas border.  In this region, also, there are many anthropogenic activities concerning with the waste water wells and more than 4000 of them active at the moment in the state. The enhancement of earthquakes cluster is investigated in other locations in the USA. Those studies elsewhere indicated that the anthropogenic reasons vary; one of the most important is the deep waste water disposal used to recycle contaminated water extracted from the gas and oil wells, and other independent sources will be examined. We intend to explain why not all the waste wells are triggering earthquakes and how it would be strongly attached to the unevenness of the Earth’s crust.

  19. WATERPLANT PURIFICATION OF EUTROPHICATED WATER IN MESOCOSM SYSTEM WITH LONG-TERM OBSERVATION Download Article

    Kazuhito Murakami and Akiko Inoue-Kohama
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2235-2240)
    • No of Download = 555

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    To compare the ability of water purification as N, P, COD and Chl.a removal, 8 mesocosm systems were observed for 4 years. As results, 1) In all treated mesocosm system, Aoko did not appear, 2) CaO sprinkling treatment showed the most effect for water purification with P-elution controlling in long-term observation, but bio-diversity of phytoplankton and zooplankton became poor because of surplus purification, 3) MgO sprinkling treatment showed long-term effective P-elution control, and phytoplankton flora was not so poor as that in CaO sprinkling treatment, 4) Large size zooplankton were observed in water glass purification system with the structure of water plant roots for rich niche construction, 5) The diversity index of phytoplankton flora was higher under complicated community structure such as phytoplankton, zooplankton and water plants, 6) Water plant purification system was disturbed by immigration birds that ate water plants and supply their excrement to water, so positive maintenance is important to keep this system in order, and 7) Hybrid treatment system did not show the hybrid effect on water purification, so it considered important that environmental improvement level should be optimized.