Articles

  1. ESTIMATION OF PERMEABILITY OF POROUS MEDIA WITH MIXED WETTABILITIES USING PORE-NETWORK MODEL Download Article

    Junichiro Takeuchi, Wataru Sumii, Hidetaka Tsuji and Masayuki Fujihara
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2241-2247)
    • No of Download = 805

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    Water flow through porous media is involved with physical factors such as size and configuration of pores, contact angle of grain surface, and connectivity of pores. To deal with these factors, pore-scale modeling is essential. Pore aggregate referred to as pore-network is extracted from randomly packed spherical grains with the modified Delaunay tessellation method. Water flow in a pore-network is formulated in terms of a network flow problem in hydraulics, in which friction and local losses such as contraction and enlargement of pipes are explicitly treated, while those are implicitly included in the hydraulic conductance of capillary tubes in existing works. Through the numerical experiments, it was confirmed that the effect of the local loss on the hydraulic conductivity could be negligible. Furthermore, the relative permeabilities of porous media with mixed wettabilities along the primary drainage and imbibition processes were estimated.

  2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW COST MOTION ANALYSIS SYSTEM: CEKAK VISUAL 3D V1.0 Download Article

    Ghazirah Mustapha, Mohd Firdaus Abd Razak, Mohd Salzahrin Mohd Hamzah, Nur Hayati Mohd Yahya and Jamaluddin Mahmud
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2248-2252)
    • No of Download = 666

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    To date, there is lack of biomechanical characterisation on defensive technique (martial arts) due to the unavailability of appropriate motion tracking system that can be used to characterise the technique in quasi-training environment. Therefore, this paper presents the development of a novel low cost motion analysis system, Cekak Visual 3D v1.0 which is capable to track dual martial art practitioner’s skeleton motion in a single frame view using integration of Matlab GUIs and Microsoft Kinect. The accuracy and precision of the coordinate data recorded by the system was tested to ensure the quality of the system. The systems perform the tracking motion with a single Kinect which is a combination of various sensors (RGB and depth sensor) thus makes it capable in providing three dimensional coordinate data. The analysis reveals that Visual Cekak 3D v1.0 resulted lower percentage error with high internal consistency (Cronbach Alpha, α = 0.904). The proposed marker-less system is capable to track and store dual skeleton data in a single session tracking. This capability makes the systems suitable in providing quasi-training and natural setting environment for any martial arts biomechanics investigation. Therefore, we believe that the system provide new concept development for basic research in martial arts biomechanics.

  3. USE OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION GYPSUM FOR THE REMOVAL OF OFF-FLAVOR COMPOUNDS IN FISH POND WATER Download Article

    Niwooti Whangchai, Redel Gutierrez, Udomluk Sompong, Supannee Suwanpakdee, Pornpimol Pimolrat, Tomoaki Itayama Chalinda Ariyadet and Kanda Whangchai
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2253-2258)
    • No of Download = 793

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    Accumulation of off-flavor in fish flesh caused by the presence of geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) in pond waters is a worldwide quality problem in aquaculture. This study investigated the effectiveness of synthetic flue gas desulfurization gypsum, (FGDG) a cheap and readily soluble material from coal-fired electric utilities, for the removal of off flavor substances: geosmin and MIB, in fish pond water. Water samples from fish ponds were spiked with known concentrations of geosmin and MIB and varying amounts of FGDG (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg/L) were added to compare the removal rates of geosmin and MIB, chlorophyll a levels and orthophosphate. The experiment was conducted for 9 days. It was revealed that FGDG had significantly reduced both geosmin and MIB in spiked pond waters when compared with the control (0 mg/L) (P<0.05). The highest removal rate of geosmin (63.41%) was found when 600 mg/L of CFG was used after 9 days. However, the removal rate of geosmin at 200 and 400 mg/L FGDG was not significantly (P>0.05) different from 600 mg/L. The highest removal rate of MIB (75.63%) was found with the treatment with 400 mg/L CFG after 6 days. In addition, 200 mg/L FGDG was also highly effective in reducing chlorophyll a and orthophosphate concentration through calcium phosphate precipitation. It was suggested that 200 mg/L FGDG is the suitable dose to apply for the removal of off-flavor compounds in fish pond waters.

  4. STUDY ON REMOVAL OF CESIUM AND STRONTIUM FROM MARINE AND LAKE MUD Download Article

    Keiichiro Shibata, Hidenori Yoshida and Naomichi Matsumoto
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2259-2266)
    • No of Download = 514

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    The serious nuclear disaster in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear energy plant was occurred by the Tsunami on March 11, 2011. The radioactive materials leaking from the power plant were widely diffused in and around Fukushima prefecture including the Pacific Ocean by wind, rain and river flow. It can’t be always said that there is no risk of the condensation of radioactive materials in human body by ecological chain if fish take in radiation in the ocean contaminated by the radioactive materials. However the decontamination is less-advanced. The establishment of a new decontamination method is urgent need. Thus, in this study, it is aimed to establish a new decontamination technology of radioactive materials deposited on seabed or lake bed. In particular, the new adsorption material which can adsorb radioactive materials is developed and the new method which can move them from the bottom sediment to the adsorption material is proposed. It is expected that the proposed method and the developed adsorption material are efficient to remove radioactive materials from seabed or lake bed when they are expansively applied to the real decontamination.

  5. TUNING DIFFERENT TYPES OF COMPLEX QUERIES USING THE APPROPRIATE INDEXES IN PARALLEL/DISTRIBUTED DATABASE SYSTEMS Download Article

    Mohamed Chakraoui, Abderrafiaa El Kalay and Naoual Mouhni
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2267-2274)
    • No of Download = 764

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    In this paper, we discuss the most powerful techniques of tuning parallel/distributed databases. As in engineering, database tuning becomes an inescapable part of big projects since the conception phase of research projects. The needs of companies including big data have increased to databases optimization. Systems that not take into account the optimization rules become heavy after five years of their production; these reasons were of a paramount of importance to prepare this paper. Indexing is the most suitable way to optimize database systems, further one of the top ways of optimizing index is the application of parallelization. In this paper, we will discuss parallelization and we will practice it with different complex queries and sub-queries using different types of indexes; then we will compare the results gotten from each index. To top it all, the most suitable interference between the major types of index: B*Tree index, Bitmap index, composite parallel index, local parallel index and global parallel index.

  6. COOLING EFFECTS OF TWO TYPES OF TREE CANOPY SHAPE IN PENANG, MALAYSIA Download Article

    Julia Md. Tukiran, Jamel Ariffin and Abdul Naser Abdul Ghani
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2275-2283)
    • No of Download = 985

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    Shade trees provide a cooling effect by blocking sunlight, increased ambient air humidity and provide shade during the day. All trees cannot offer relief from the heat in the same amount. This study compared the shading effectiveness of two types of canopy shape (rounded and spreading) in the landscape of Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang. There are four species selected for this study. Field measurement of microclimate conditions under the tree canopy and open spaces were repeated on a sunny day. The effect of trees shade on air temperature, surface temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation and solar transmission were also compared and related to the leaf area index (LAI). It was found that the air temperature under the canopy could be reduced between 0.67 °C to 2.55 °C, while the surface-soil temperature can be reduced between 3.23 °C to 8.15 °C. Tree species with higher LAI values, Swietenia macrophylla (Big leaf mahogany) and Tabebuia rosea (Tecoma) provide significantly more cooling than the other species. Reduction of surface temperature is positively correlated with leaf area index. This study shows that shade tree in tropical climates are helpful in improving the outdoor thermal comfort, cooling ground surface by encouraging more latent heat and reduces air temperature by encouraging more evapotranspiration. Thus, the selection of tree species with higher leaf area index value can maximize the benefits they provide to the surrounding area.

  7. A METHOD OF PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN GOVERNMENTS AND CITIZEN’S COMMUNITY GROUPS FOR ACHIEVING ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY IN THE LANDCARE MOVEMENT IN AUSTRALIA Download Article

    Tomomi Maekawa
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2284-2290)
    • No of Download = 625

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    With regard to achieving environmental sustainability, it has long been recognized that partnership between citizens and governments is important for conservation and for solving environmental problems. It has also been recognized that what form that partnership takes makes a difference. However we are still in the process of seeking out a methodology for an ideal form of partnership between citizens and governments. This study will focus on the partnership between citizen’s community groups and governments in an Australian community-based approach to natural resource management called Landcare, which has been recognized as a successful approach for natural resource management through multi-party partnership. In the Landcare movement, local voluntary groups care for the local environment, including such things as parks, creeks, forests and farms. In order to clarify the nature of the partnership between citizen’s community groups and governments in the Landcare movement, documentation analysis and in-field research in the State of Victoria, Australia, were undertaken. The in-field research included observations through participation and interviews with individuals participating in the Landcare movement as volunteers or staff members. As a conclusion, the partnership between citizen’s community groups and governments in the Landcare movement has been found to include respect for the voluntary and autonomous nature of the local groups that carry out the activities for improving local environments with informational, financial, technical, and motivational support from the state and federal government.

  8. EFFECT OF TiO2-COATED SUBSTRATE PHOTOCATALYSIS ON CHLOPYRIFOS INSECTICIDE DEGRADATION Download Article

    Kanda Whangchai, Trid Sriwichai, Niwooti Whangchai and Nakao Nomura
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2291-2295)
    • No of Download = 830

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    The efficiencies of photocatalysis using TiO2-coated substrates to reduce chlorpyrifos insecticides was evaluated. Three different glass substrates (glass ball, glass slide and glass bead) were prepared and tested with KI solution for efficiency of oxidation test. It was found that TiO2-coated glass beads at 45 mg/ml for 60 min had the highest iodine liberation rate. A 1 mgL-1 standard chlorpyrifos was subjected to those TiO2-coated substrates photocatalysis for 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. The percentage reduction of chlorpyrifos was calculated. It was shown that TiO2-coated glass bead photocatalysis had high reduction rate of chlorpyrifos concentration within 15 minutes, which correlated with an increase in iodine liberation rate. The effectiveness of TiO2 in photocatalysis to reduce contaminated chlorpyrifos in Chinese kale was determined by treatments with different TiO2-coated substrate photocatalysis and sampled every 15 minutes for 60 minutes. It was found that TiO2-coated glass bead reduced chlorpyrifos concentration to 53% when compared with the control. In addition, in the quality of Chinese kale after treatment withTiO2 in photocatalysis and stored for 12 days at 5 °C was also investigated. There was no significant difference in the quality of Chinese kale in weight loss, leaf color, total soluble solids and ascorbic acid content.

  9. MORPHOFUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF RAT LIVER UNDER DIFFERENT NUTRIENT PROVISION Download Article

    Rusakova E.A., Kvan O.V., Miroshnikov S.A.3 Korotkova A.M., Davydova N.O. and Skuridina I.V.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2296-2300)
    • No of Download = 571

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    The article presents research of structural and functional changes in the liver in the conditions of modeling of micronutrient deficiencies in the organism of experimental animals with subsequent inclusion of complex minerals into their food ration. The object of the study was the liver of rats «Wistar». The elemental composition of biological substrates has been studied using atomic emission and mass spectrometry (ICP-AES and ICP-MS) in the test laboratory ANO «Center for Biotic Medicine». It has been established that the addition of selenium to the ration increases the concentration of this element in the liver by 15,0% (p≤0,05) against the background of lowering nickel by 50,0% (p≤0,05) in the experimental group I relative to control. When you turn on zinc into the ration, the concentration of it increases by 14,3% (p≤0,05) in the experimental group II relative to the control. Inclusion of iodine in the ration contributed to the increase of the iodine concentration by 4,52% in the experimental group III relative to the control group. Thus, the intake by the animal organism of toxic elements (lead and cadmium salts) leads to a change in the structural elements of the liver, resulting in depletion of hepatocyte in glycogen, or its complete disappearance, in offensive vacuolization and necrosis of hepatocytes and in changes in vessels diameter microvasculature, i.e. structural and functional changes in the liver are identified. Introduction into the ration of complex of essential trace elements (I, Se, Zn) involves an increase in functional activity of the liver.

  10. CHANGES THE STRUCTURE AND CAFFEINE ADSORPTION PROPERTY OF CALCINED MONTMORILLONITE Download Article

    Kenichiro Yamamoto, Takashi Shiono, Yasuto Matsui and Minoru Yoneda
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2301-2306)
    • No of Download = 726

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    Montmorillonite is widely used as a natural adsorbent. It is generally considered that the adsorption properties of montmorillonite are largely due to its characteristic layer structure. The structure of montmorillonite changes under different temperature conditions. In this study, changes in the structure of montmorillonite with temperature are analyzed using Synchrotron X-Ray Powder Diffraction (SR-XRD). Observations are made on how montmorillonite with a modified structure is affected by the adsorption of nonionic organic compounds in a water system. The object of this study is to elucidate the mechanism by which montmorillonite adsorbs nonionic organic compounds. It is confirmed that, without calcination treatment, adsorption of caffeine on montmorillonite changes its layer structure. Calcination treatment at above 573 K causes irreversible dehydration in the structure of montmorillonite. Samples of montmorillonite calcined at 673 K and 873 K show a reduction in the amount of caffeine adsorbed. In addition, calcination treatment of montmorillonite at 673 K and 873 K causes less intercalation into the layers. These results show that adsorption of caffeine on montmorillonite without calcination treatment occurs with the intercalation of caffeine between layers of montmorillonite. On the other hand, montmorillonite calcined at 873 K is confirmed to adsorb approximately 20 % of caffeine compared to untreated montmorillonite. It suggested the possibility of the adsorption of caffeine even on the surfaces and end faces of layers of montmorillonite.

  11. SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION OF NONVALUABLE RESIDUE FROM WASTE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD ASSEMBLY Download Article

    Sunisa Tesanan, Suphaphat Kwonpongsagoon and Premrudee Kanchanapiya
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2307-2313)
    • No of Download = 402

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    The process of copper recovery from waste printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) has remained a large fraction of solid waste called “Nonvaluable Residue (NVR)”. This residue is considered to be a hazardous waste because Pb, Cu, and Sb exceed the regulatory levels. Solidification/Stabilization (S/S) treatment technique is selected to improve waste characteristics before disposal of in hazardous waste landfills. In this study, a cement-based solidification/stabilization was used to treat NVR. Unconfined compression strength test (UCS) and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) were mainly used for physical and chemical characterization of the solidified/stabilized products. After curing for 28 days, the compressive strength and heavy metal leachability (Pb, Cu, Sb) were tested. The results showed that the compressive strength of blank sample was 20.75 MPa while compressive strengths of the solidified/stabilized NVR products were 7.36, 4.17 and 1.35 MPa for 20%, 30% and 40 wt% of NVR, respectively. All experimental mixture ratios satisfied the UCS requirements (0.35 MPa). In addition, the concentrations of Pb, Cu, and Sb in the TCLP leachate of all solidified/stabilized NVR products were lower than the limit value and the original waste. This study indicated that cement-based S/S treatment process was able to improve heavy metal immobilization and subsequently minimize potential environmental impacts in landfill disposal.

  12. GENERALIZED STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT MODEL OF SOLIDIFIED DREDGED MARINE SOILS WITH GRANULAR FILLER ADDITION Download Article

    Chee-Ming Chan and Amira Azhar
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2314-2321)
    • No of Download = 535

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    Dredged marine soils (DMS) are the sediment and debris removed in the dredging process. Large amount of DMS is generated from the dredging operations yearly, especially from the maintenance of existing shipping channels and the development of various coastal infrastructures. In practice, DMS are generally disposed of at designated offshore dump sites. Inadvertently, these discarded DMS would in time be deposited back near shore due to tidal dynamics, necessitating dredging works again. Considering that DMS are essentially soils with poor engineering properties, particularly low shear strength, there could be potential for the materials’ reuse as acceptable or good geomaterials if the original conditions can be improved. Pre-treatment for enhancement of the soil’s strength, such as solidification, is a feasible option. In the present study, the solidification of 3 DMS samples was examined with the admixing of cement and/or bottom ash, where cement acts as a binder while the bottom ash functions a filler material to lend structure to the weak soil. The strength improvement of the solidified DMS was monitored with the unconfined compression tests. The key factors that influence strength development in solidified soils were investigated, i.e. curing period, water-binder ratio and binder-filler mix ratio. The curing period was prefixed at 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days, while the water-binder ratio examined were 1, 3 and 5. The test results indicated that strength increased with curing time and higher water-binder ratio. The optimal binder-filler mix ratio determined was 75 % cement to 25 % bottom ash. The bottom ash was found to contribute to strength gain too, albeit in a minor way compared to the highly reactive cement. For the generalized strength development plots, the unconfined compressive strength of a particular day (q) was divided with the strength on day 28 (q28). The resulting q/q28 vs. curing period plots were linear with varying gradients dependent on the water-binder ratio, though it was apparent that the gradient of the plot decreased with increased water-binder ratio. In summary, solidification with cement-bottom ash is expedient in improving the original low strength of the DMS, and the generalized strength development model is useful for modeling, design and prediction on site.

  13. WINTER URBAN HEAT ISLAND MAGNITUDES OF MAJOR AUSTRALIAN CITIES Download Article

    Melissa Neave and Scott Rayburg
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2322-2327)
    • No of Download = 621

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    This study seeks to determine the relative magnitude of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect in five major Australian cities during the winter season. To achieve this, the study considers three weather stations in each city: one in a high density urban area, one in a medium density urban area and one in a nearby very low density urban/rural area. For each station, temperature data were collected every 30 minutes over a three day period. The data where then plotted and maximum, minimum, and average temperature differences (and the times of those differences) were recorded. The data show that all of the cities investigated showed a strong winter heat island effect with the magnitude ranging from about 3oC up to 8oC. The largest temperature differences typically occurred near dawn (about 6 am) and overnight. It was also observed that during the day, the high and moderate density urban areas could have temperatures either higher or lower than the rural areas, a condition consistent with other global observations of the UHI effect.

  14. POST-CYCLIC BEHAVIOR OF GRANULAR SOIL- STRUCTURE INTERFACE DIRECT SHEAR TESTS Download Article

    Suriyavut Pra-ai and Marc Boulon
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2328-2334)
    • No of Download = 994

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    The purpose of this paper is to present one of the most important phases of a series of cyclic direct shear tests on granular soil and rough material interface under constant normal stiffness (CNS) condition. These cyclic interface tests were performed in order to simulate the situation along the pile shaft subjected to a large number of cycles due to environmental or anthropic loadings. This post-cyclic phase can be performed by one single large cycle after the cyclic phase in order to characterize the change of interface resistance. The principal characteristic of interface subjected to cyclic loading is the progressive contraction. This phenomenon leads to the degradation in normal stress acting on the pile shaft and consequently the shear resistance decreases. The influence of relative density of granular soil, initial normal stress, level of stress ratio, cyclic amplitude and imposed normal stiffness on the post-cyclic responses is discussed.

  15. REFLECTION AND DIELECTRIC MEASUREMENT FOR SALINITY OF WATER USING MICROSTRIP LOOP ANTENNA AND DIELECTRIC PROBE Download Article

    E.M. Cheng, M. F. Abdul Malek, S. F. Khor, K. Y. You, K.Y. Lee, M. A. Rojan, S. Abu Bakar, N. F. Mohd Nasir, Z. Zakaria, and W. H. Tan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2335-2340)
    • No of Download = 1251

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    This study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of loop antenna in gauging level of salinity of water via electromagnetic wave reflection. High salinity cause adverse effect to environment. When high levels salinity of water diffuse into soil, it declines values of land for human and animal consumption. These impacts can cause tremendous monetary lost because the restoration of impairments is extremely costly. Therefore, a reliable salinity detection system of water source is crucial. In this work, reflection measurement was conducted using loop antenna in conjunction with network analyser for water salinity detection. Dielectric probe will be then used for dielectric characterization due to different water salinity. It comes to learn that the different level of salinity of water exhibit different dielectric properties through reflection measurement. The increment of salinity leads to increment and decrement of dielectric constant and loss factor, respectively. Similar observation can be found in reflection coefficient.

  16. SUCCESS OF FUEL QUALITY IMPROVING POLICY IN REDUCING BENZENE AIR CONCENTRATIONS IN BANGKOK Download Article

    Lasita Jinawa and Sarawut Thepanondh
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2341-2347)
    • No of Download = 646

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    The Thai’s policy in improving of fuel quality to the changing of emissions and concentrations of air pollutants in Bangkok is evaluated in this study. Benzene content in gasoline had been decreased from 3.5% (EURO II standard) to less than 1.0% (EURO IV standard) since the year 2012. The IVE (International Vehicle Emission) model was applied to develop emission factor of benzene taking into consideration actual fleets and characteristics of vehicles in Bangkok. These vehicles consisted of passenger car, motorcycle, van and pick up, taxi, bus and truck. Then, emission inventory of benzene emitted from mobile sources was calculated. It was found that about 83% of total emissions of benzene were contributed from motorcycle (43%) and passenger car (40%). Emission amounts were reduced from 1.32 x 103 ton/year to 0.57 x 103 ton/year as resulted from changing of fuel quality from EURO II to EURO IV standard. AERMOD dispersion model was used to simulate ambient ground level concentration of benzene prior and after implementing this policy. Results revealed significantly reduction of benzene concentrations in Bangkok’s environment. Spatial distribution of benzene pollution map illustrated that areas having annual concentration higher than 1.7 mg/m3 (the Thai’s air quality standard for benzene) were still only found in traffic-congested zone of the central business district in the metropolitan area.

  17. INDICATORS FOR MEASURING SATISFACTION TOWARDS DESIGN QUALITY OF BUILDINGS Download Article

    Azeanita Suratkon, Chee-Ming Chan and Safuan Jusoh
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2348-2355)
    • No of Download = 683

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    Design quality is an important component in measuring satisfaction towards total product quality (TPQ) of buildings, the product of construction projects. Design Quality Indicator (DQI),  developed by the Construction Industry Council (CIC) in the UK looking at three quality fields, i.e. functionality, build quality, and impact of building in measuring the quality of design embodied in the buildings through feedback and perceptions of all stakeholders involved in the production and use of buildings. Design quality is always a major concern in the Malaysian construction industry. With inspiration from this DQI, this study was carried out to identify indicators for measuring the satisfaction towards design quality of buildings and to evaluate the suitability of the indicators for application in the context of Malaysian construction industry. Through literature survey, 32 indicators of design quality were identified and grouped into the three design quality fields. A questionnaire survey was carried out among Malaysian construction professionals (architects, engineers, quantity surveyors, contractors and developers) to assess the identified design quality indicators in terms of their relevance and significance in the context of construction industry in Malaysia. The survey reveals that access, natural lighting, access and use, structure element, landscape, finishes, location, external environment, urban and social integration and noise are among the design quality indicators that were perceived as the most important to be looked at. In overall, all the indicators are relevant for adoption in the Malaysian construction industry to measure the satisfaction towards design quality of buildings.

  18. ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPIC AND ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MODIFIED SCREEN PRINTED CARBON ELECTRODE BY SELF ASSEMBLED DEPOSITION OF CHITOSAN AND ACTIVATED CARBON Download Article

    Porntip Wongkaew and Suta Poosittisak
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2356-2362)
    • No of Download = 803

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    The surface topographic characteristics generated after a modification of screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) with either chitosan or activated carbon blending chitosan were closely investigated by atomic force microscopy and a complementary electrochemical techniques. Eighty five percent deacetylation degree chitosan was used at 1% in 1% acetic acid while the activated carbon blending ratio used was 1:1 in chitosan solution.  The modification was performed via self assembled deposition directly onto the working electrode surface area. Growth feature of each modified surface was obviously differentiated by all roughness parameters such as an average roughness, root mean square, height different, grain and fractal. The highest roughness value with the least grain was from chitosan modified SPCE.  A good correlation result was obtained with electrochemical cyclic voltammetry that a great change in current response was also appeared. Both the modified SPCE by chitosan and activated carbon blending chitosan could produce comparable higher current sensitivity with up to around 0.5 slope value following by their regression coefficient of 0.99. Thus affordable and efficient platforms for a fabrication of desirable pesticide biosensor could be achieved with these modifications as expected.

  19. EVALUATION OF THE LONG-TERM POLLUTION REMOVAL PERFORMANCE OF ESTABLISHED BIORETENTION CELLS Download Article

    Peter Nichols and Terry Lucke
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2363-2369)
    • No of Download = 809

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    Over the last two decades bioretention (biofiltration) systems have been commonly constructed in urban areas to manage stormwater runoff by moderating peak flows and reducing downstream pollution loads. Bioretention systems are generally soil-plant based systems which typically include a filter medium above a drainage layer. They are often either lined with a geofabric to support infiltration, or with an impermeable membrane to prevent infiltration and/or to allow stormwater harvesting and reuse. Bioretention systems are known to treat a range of stormwater pollutants through physical, chemical and biological processes such as mechanical filtering, sedimentation, adsorption, and plant and microbial uptake. However, the long-term pollution removal performance, particularly of heavy metals, remains largely unknown. It is generally accepted that the filter media used in bioretention systems has a finite life span, after which time it should be replaced. However, there is only very limited information available on when this should occur, or how to assess this. It is also recognised that contaminated filter media may require regulated disposal. This study presents results from a series of controlled field experiments conducted over two years which evaluated the pollution removal performance of a series of 10 year old bioretention systems located in an industrial estate in Australia.

  20. A NOVEL PRODUCTION PROCESS MODELING FOR ANALYTICS Download Article

    Rich Lee and Ing-Yi Chen
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2370-2377)
    • No of Download = 557

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    Nowadays the manufacturing is facing the critical challenges from various aspects including the trend of moving towards the new era of Industrial 4.0 [1]—an analytical and predictive driven production thinking, the Smart Factory. To effectively embed the necessary processes for analytics, a new way of modeling the process flows is essential to realize the goal of the predictive lean production. To reach these objectives, this paper presents a novel process modeling approach for analytics which is vital to the practitioners and the industries. The analysis of the smart factory theme includes the statistics, the data mining, and the operation research approaches [2] based on the various management improvements or the prediction objectives. The proposed process modeling for analytics extends the XML (eXtensible Markup Language), which is also commonly used in software engineering [3]. The purpose of using this is to streamline the latter integration with the analytical processes among the software systems and will play a key part of the factory knowledge management for continuous optimization.

  21. AS-BUILT 3D MODELING BASED ON STRUCTURE FROM MOTION FOR DEFORMATION ASSESSMENT OF HISTORICAL BUILDINGS Download Article

    Bhakapong Bhadrakom and Krisada Chaiyasarn
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2378-2384)
    • No of Download = 945

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     Assessing the state of historical buildings is non-trivial tasks as limited information is available and only non-invasive assessment can be performed on these buildings. Image-based 3D reconstruction is a recent technique, which can construct an as-built model of a historical building to be used for damage and deformation assessment. The technique is based on Structure from Motion, which can automatically create a 3D model from uncalibrated images. In this paper, VisualSFM, automated image-based 3D modeling software, is applied to construct a 3D model of a historical building. The model is compared with a model obtained from a laser scan (LIDAR). To perform a deformation assessment on the building, a series of a horizontal plane is sliced through the 3D model, and then a centre of each 3D slice is joined to form a line representing an incline angle of the building. This technique is performed against a laboratory dataset to determine its accuracy. It was found that for a small incline angle (less than 4o), the technique contains the inaccuracy of 2.75% with increasing inaccuracy as inclined angles become larger. When applying the technique to a real temple dataset, it was found that the angle of inclination is less than 3o, which is in an acceptable range for the proposed technique. Additionally, it was found that the inclined angles obtained from VisualSFM and LIDAR are almost identical. It was recommended that VisualSFM can be used instead of LIDAR when performing damage assessment in historical buildings.

  22. DEVELOPMENT OF ACOUSTICAL SIMULATION MODEL FOR MUFFLER Download Article

    Wei-Hong Tan, T.S. Kho and N.H. Zunaidi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2385-2390)
    • No of Download = 1212

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    Mufflers have been widely used to reduce the noise level emitted from various vehicles. The simple and high accuracy simulation model for muffler is highly requested by designers in evaluation stage of preliminary design. In this paper, the simulation model was developed by using SysNoise application in LMS Virtual Lab. The basic geometry of simple expansion chamber muffler was proposed for simulation and evaluation in terms of transmission loss (TL). The developed model via simulation had been verified by comparing the predicted TL of simple expansion chamber muffler with the experimental data in literature. It can be observed that simulation results have good agreement with the experimental data from literature. In addition, simulation-based muffler analysis also was conducted for parametrical studies in order to enhance the TL of muffler. As a conclusion, the computational acoustic model based on Finite Element Method (FEM) was successfully developed for prediction of TL on mufflers.

  23. DETERMINATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOUND FROM Spirogyra sp. USING ULTRASONIC ASSISTED EXTRACTION Download Article

    Pornphan Champa, Niwooti Whangchai4, Somkiat Jaturonglumlert, Nomura Nakao and Kanda Whangchai
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2391-2396)
    • No of Download = 1212

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    Currently, the use of phytochemical compounds from macro algae for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes is popular. This study aimed to evaluate ultrasound assisted-extraction (UAE) method on phytochemical components (gallotannin, total flavonoids content, total saponin content and total phenolic compounds) in Spirogyra sp.. The ultrasonic devices with same input power of 5 watts and varying 3 frequencies (45 kHz, 210 kHz and 1 MHz) of UAE coupled with 3 solvents (ethanol, methanol and acetone) were investigated. Treated samples were collected after sonication for 120 min. The results revealed that UAE method showed the highest performance in yield extraction compared with hot water. The highest yields of gallotannin and total flavonoids content were obtained by sonication at 45 kHz with 2.7 mg/g and 3.5 mg/g acetone but the highest yield of total phenolic compounds was found when sonicated at 45 kHz with methanol and total saponin content was found with ethanol. Thus, UAE at 5 watts, 45 kHz. showed the best result in yields extraction of those phytochemical compounds. While the suitable solvents for phytochemical compounds extraction differed and depended on the purpose and phytochemical type. UAE in combination with acetone had a suitable effect on P. digitatum inhibition while UAE in combination with acetone, ethanol and methanol showed non significantly different on E.coli inhibition.

  24. FACTORS AFFECTING THE SWELLING PRESSURE MEASURED BY THE OEDEMETER METHOD Download Article

    C.P.G. Jayalath, C. Gallage and N.S. Miguntanna
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2397-2402)
    • No of Download = 796

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    Expansive soils are common in arid and semi-arid climate regions of the world and cause severe problems on civil engineering structures. The Swelling potential of the expansive soil mainly depends upon the properties of soil and environmental factors, and stress conditions. Swelling pressure is a key parameter used in designing structures in and on expansive soil. The swelling pressure of soil is measured in the laboratory using a representative soil samples. The size and the surface friction of the sample ring used in the swelling pressure test have effects on the measured swelling pressure and they have not properly been investigated. In this study, a series of constant volume swelling tests were conducted using an automated consolidation-swell apparatus to evaluate the effect of sample ring size, ring friction, initial dry density, and initial moisture content (IMC). Test results indicate an exponential growing trend of swelling pressure when the dry density is increased. Similarly, high swell pressures are achieved when the IMC is increased for the same dry density. A higher swelling pressure was measured when the friction of the specimen ring was reduced. The measured swelling pressure increases with increasing the height of the sampling ring and it decreases when the ring diameter is increased. Therefore, it is recommended to use a standard sample ring reducing inside wall friction using lubricants when measuring the swelling pressure in the laboratory. Further, the sample ring size, initial density and initial moisture content of soil should be given when reporting swelling pressure of soil.