Articles

  1. NUMERICAL SIMULATION FOR THE MOVEMENT OF CESIUM-137 IN GROUNDS Download Article

    Shinya Inazumi, Yoji Ueyama and Ken-ichi Shishido
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2528-2533)
    • No of Download = 770

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    Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear disaster occurred by Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011. As the result, a lot of radioactive substances was discharged to atmosphere and deposited in surface of ground by rain. In damaged area, decontamination has been conducting. Usually decontamination for the ground is digging out for 5 cm from the surface of the ground, but its safety and validity is apprehended. In this study, permeation behavior analysis of radioactive substance in the ground was carried out in order to prepare new decontaminations. Specifically, behavior and advection-dispersion analysis was conducted by advectiondispersion equation was embedded a term that considered half-life. As a result, it is found that this analysis method has enough validity by comparing analysis result with result on the spot. Furthermore analytic evaluation for the current decontamination is performed.

  2. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE EPS-BASED SHOCK ABSORBER FOR ROCK-SHED Download Article

    Shen-Hsiang Hsu, Koji Maegawa and Li-Hsien Chen
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2534-2540)
    • No of Download = 834

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    Shock absorber made of piled up expanded polystyrene (EPS) placing above the roof of rock-shed is commonly use to advance the impact capacity against rockfall, but the require thickness increases with the accompanying rockfall energy and results in high construction cost or leads to the decrease of building amount. A new type of EPS-based shock absorber that composed of two EPS-blocks, surrounded by cage wire netting, then a steel grid placed onto was tested under a series of static and impact load tests in this study to find out its properties. Test results of static load tests show that strength increased about 20 % at the later stage, and force diffused more uniform due to the stiffness of steel grid. The results of impact load tests indicate that the limit capacity of impact energy in the EPS-based shock absorber is around 502.3 - 627.2 kJ, which is 50% less than the empirical formula suggested by a rockfall mitigation code.

  3. THE COOLING EFFECT OF A MEDIUM SIZED PARK ON AN URBAN ENVIRONMENT Download Article

    Hayder Al-Gretawee, Scott Rayburg and Melissa Neave
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2541-2546)
    • No of Download = 820

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    The Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect can best be described as an increase in the temperature of urban areas relative to their surroundings. This effect can exceed 5oC in places. This study investigates how vegetation, in particular urban parklands, can be used to reduce the intensity of the UHI effect. To achieve this, the study uses a ground based approach relying on high spatial and temporal resolution temperature measurements using both a hand-held weather meter and a hand-held thermal laser-gun. The study focusses on one medium sized park in Melbourne, Australia and samples air temperatures (at 5 cm and 1.5 m above the ground) and land surface temperature profiles six times a day over one month starting within the park and extending to approximately 1 km outside of the park. The study shows that the park has a significant cooling effect for a distance of up to 860 m from its boundaries and that this is most significant in the early morning. The study also shows that land surface temperatures are more sensitive to park cooling effects than are air temperatures.

  4. CHANGES IN DEPTH AND THE SEDIMENT RATE BEFORE AND AFTER THE LAKESHORE DEVELOPMENT IN LAKE FUKAMI-IKE, JAPAN Download Article

    Maki Oyagi, Megumi Nobori, Hiromi Ssuda, Akiko Yokoyama and Akihiko Yagi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2547-2552)
    • No of Download = 649

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    Changes in depth and decrease of the sediment rate before and after a building breakhead maintenance construction were studied in small monomictic and eutrophic Lake Fukami-ike in central Japan. The maintenance of farm village drainage and the waterfront function was carried out for the activation of the town in 1992, and the water quality improvement was expected. However, variations of transparency were observed and no blue-green algal bloom outbreak had occurred before recently observed. Maximum depth changed from 9.3 m (1951), 8.5 m (1979), 8.1 cm (1992) to 7.8 m (2012), respectively. Changes in the autochthonous and allochthonous matters in the lake were thus considered. Sediment rates of 19.5 ± 10.19 gm-2d-1 (1978 to 1979) and 4.40 ± 2.27 gm-2d-1 (2007 to 2008) were observed, and decreased 22.6%. These deposition rate data corresponded to 3.1 cm year-1 (1979) and 1.2 cmyear-1 (2009), respectively. The decreased percentage of organic matter and the reduced deposition rate were because rice fields and forest around the lake give way to take concrete roads. It was considered to be because the inflow of sediment stopped when it rained, and allochthonous inorganic matter was significantly reduced.

  5. LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT BASED ON LABORATORY TEST Download Article

    Abdul Hakam, Febrin Anas Ismail and Fauzan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2553-2557)
    • No of Download = 584

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    The physical properties of sand soil which give effect to the resistance of liquefaction include grain size and density. Those physical properties of sand soil associated to liquefaction resistance have been studied in laboratory. Based on that study, the method to assess the liquefaction potential then is proposed. In laboratory tests, the vibration source is given by using the shaking table. During the tests, the acceleration and settlement are recorded. It then concluded that there is a relationship between density and gain size particles associated with liquefaction resistance for certain acceleration of vibration. The cone penetration and relative density relationship has been developed based on experiments in laboratory. Based on the results of those laboratory tests, the liquefaction potential of a certain site then assessed. It is found that the relative density and mean gain size relationship can be used to assess liquefaction potential in sand deposits.

  6. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF CONTAMINANT FLOW IN THE SQUARE CLOSED RESERVOIR Download Article

    V A Permino and A M Goudov
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2558-2562)
    • No of Download = 586

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    A mathematical model of the propagation in flooded mine lightweight contaminant due to allocation of groundwater is considered. Mathematical model was based on an analysis of experimental data and using concept and methods from reactive media mechanics. The boundary-value problem is solved numerically using the finite volume method. The distribution of fields of velocities and concentration of impurity particles in a flooded mine have been obtained at different times. These results can be used to analyze mining water treatment process due to environment and evaluate its further possible improvements.

  7. DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF SINGLE PILE LOCATED IN SOFT CLAY UNDERLAY BY SAND Download Article

    Deendayal Rathod, K. Muthukkumaran and T.G.Sitharam
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2563-2567)
    • No of Download = 4004

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    Piles have been extensively used for supporting axial loads and lateral loads for variety of structures including high rise buildings, transmission towers, power stations, offshore structures and highway and railway structures. Pile foundations are subjected to lateral loading due to wind action, wave action, earthquake and impact of ships in dock and harbour structures. In such cases, studying the behavior of pile foundation due dynamic loading is essential. Compare to field tests, the numerical modeling is an economical way to analyze the response of piles. This paper presents the dynamic response of a single concrete pile of 0.4m diameter, 11.5m length located in soft clay underlay by sand subjected to static vertical load as well as ground acceleration simultaneously. Finite element software PLAXIS 2D is used to analyze the pile. From the analysis, the deformation and acceleration behaviour of pile with respect to time has been studied. 

  8. CHARACTERISTICS OF CHLORIDE DIFFUSION AND PORE VOLUME IN CERAMIC WASTE AGGREGATE MORTAR CONTAINING GGBS Download Article

    Hiroshi Higashiyama, Manote Sappakittipakorn, Mutsumi Mizukoshi and Osamu Takahashi
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (2568-2575)
    • No of Download = 818

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    Ceramic waste aggregates (CWAs) were made from electric porcelain insulator wastes supplied from an electric power company, which were crushed and ground to fine aggregate sizes. The CWA mortar as an eco-efficient has been investigated containing ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS). The water-to-binder ratio (W/B) of the CWA mortars was varied at 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6. The GGBS, which enhances the chloride ingress resistance, was utilized as a supplementary cementitious material. The CWA mortars partially replaced by the GGBS at 20% and 40% were immersed into a 5% NaCl solution for 48 and 96 weeks. The chloride diffusion and the pore size distribution were assessed by using an electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and a mercury intrusion porosimetry at each immersion time. The resistance to the chloride ingress of the CWA mortar was effective in proportion to the GGBS replacement level. The changing of the apparent chloride diffusion coefficients except for the CWA without the GGBS at the W/B of 0.6 was small along the immersion time. Moreover, the apparent chloride diffusion coefficient was well related to the cumulative pore volume less than 0.1 μm of pore diameter.

  9. FUZZY RANKING FOR LANDFILL SITE SELECTION IN INDIAN CONTEXT Download Article

    Hecson Christian and J.E.M. Macwan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2576-2580)
    • No of Download = 837

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    Landfill site selection in an urban area is critical issue in the urban planning process. It creates major impact on economy, ecology, and the environmental health of the region. With the growth of urbanization as well as the desire to live in cities, larger amount of wastes are produced. Therefore, unfortunately the problem gets bigger every day. A selection of proper waste disposal site is a function of many parameters pertaining to urban planning and Environmental aspects. The normal practice is to select a site where open space is available. Parameters pertaining to above aspects are hardly attended to. The right method of selection should have been based upon correct assessment of parametric evaluation. All parameters have various scales and values too. In order to integrate these values, fuzzy approach seems to be the reasonable selection method. Thus, the objectives of this paper are to highlight solid waste scenario in Indian context, to present the assessed parameters and to present a model of fuzzy ranking approach to solve the problem. The fuzzy multi criteria decision making (FMCDM) is used to rank different land fill sites. The solution suggested shall be a useful tool for urban environmental applications.

  10. THE MONITORING AND CEMENTATION BEHAVIOR OF ELECTROKINETIC STABILISATION TECHNIQUE ON BATU PAHAT MARINE CLAY Download Article

    Saiful Azhar Ahmad Tajudin1, Nurul Syakeera Nordin, Aminaton Marto, Aziman Madun, Mohd Hazreek Zainal Abidin, Ian Jefferson and Mohamad Azim Mohamad Mohammad Azmi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2581-2588)
    • No of Download = 814

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    This paper outlines the monitoring and soil fabric results from an experimental study of electrokinetic stabilisation (EKS) technique. The monitoring results were important in assessing the efficiency of the technique towards Batu Pahat marine clay. Two reactors were set up; 1.0 M of calcium chloride (CaCl2) and sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) as the electrolyte and stainless steel plates as the electrodes. EKS technique was continued for 21 days with a constant voltage gradient (50 V/m). This technique was performed in two phases where the alteration of EKS was the combination of stabilizers used. The combinations of stabilizers in phase 1 and 2 were CaCl2 – distilled water (DW) and CaCl2 – Na2SiO3, respectively. The technique was monitored using electric current, total inflow and outflow of electrolytes and pH of electrolytes. It showed fluctuated profiles of electric current for both phases, attributed by the introduction of calcium ions from the anode compartment. The inflow and outflow of electrolytes results showed that electromigration and electroosmosis occurred during EKS and it indicated the movement of anion and cation to the opposite direction.  The pH of electrolytes kept constant value and balanced by electrolysis process at the cathode. Image of soil fabric for untreated and treated clay were presented where most images shows a flaky particles. The observation of those images indirectly explained the effect of cementation behavior of treated clay. 

  11. EFFECT OF SOIL CEMENT COLUMN SPACING AND AREA REPLACEMENT RATIO ON EMBANKMENT BEARING CAPACITY: A QUEENSLAND CASE STUDY Download Article

    Mark Bolton, Jay Noonan and Erwin Oh
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2589-2594)
    • No of Download = 3482

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    This paper investigates the effect of soil/cement column diameter and spacing on bearing capacity beneath a road embankment situated on normally consolidated estuarine deposits in the South East Queensland region. The modelling was undertaken using the Finite Element method and the results are discussed with respect to the variation in parameters as described. A site investigation was undertaken during the planning stages for construction of the embankment to establish the soil profile on the site. A range of laboratory tests were performed on the undisturbed sample obtained during the investigation. The results of the laboratory tests and several alternative established methods were utilised to establish the Plaxis input parameters as discussed in this paper. The results of the analysis reveal a direct relationship between the ultimate bearing capacity and the area replacement ratio, providing a practical tool for estimating soil cement column spacings to achieve a required bearing capacity in South East Queensland conditions.

  12. GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES AND GEOLOGI AGE ON CHARACTERISTICS OF LANDSLIDES HAZARDS OF VOLCANIC SOILS IN BALI, INDONESIA Download Article

    I Nengah Sinarta, Ahmad Rifa’i, Teuku Faisal Fathani, and Wahyu Wilopo
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2595-2599)
    • No of Download = 421

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    Landslides in ancient mountains in Indonesia have occurred in various types, scales and frequencies. Such variation seems to be determined by the weathering related to geological age. Hence, it is deemed essential to study the distinctive condition of landslide on ancient volcanic rocks. It is aimed to observe the features and avalanches that occur due to the geological age of ancient volcanic rocks in order to predict future events and the identification of instability. Geotechnical parameters on volcanic rocks and geological age were used for the interpretation of the instability. The interpretation of ancient volcanic rocks to the hazards of landslides in this study was as an attempt to create an early warning system against the vulnerability of landslides.The runoff movement is triggered by erosion in the channel valleys and the failure of the shear on soil due to sharp increase of groundwater levels. The presence of bulking in the sediment and the run off has led the surface material to be eroded from the upstream slope to the slopes. In comparison, landslides in a metamorphic rock area are in the form of translational and rotational complex movements, whereas in ancient volcanic rocks that formed at the pleistocene era, avalanches occur in the form of creep and the steep slope debris flow occurs where the material surface drainage occurs because the loose material is relatively low slope and strength parameters.

  13. EFFECT OF STRUCTURE ANISOTROPY AND COMPACTION METHOD ON THE SWELLING BEHAVIOR OF Al-QATIF SOIL Download Article

    Arif Ali Baig Moghal, Mohammad F Abbas, Ahmed M Al-Mahbashi and Abdullah Ali Shaker
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2600-2605)
    • No of Download = 810

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    The degree of variation in anisotropy adversely affects the predictability of swell behavior. For this purpose, one dimensional fixed ring oedometer consolidation tests were conducted on Al-Qatif soil, by varying the mode as well as the degree of compaction. The samples were prepared by both dynamic and static compaction techniques. Prior to consolidation testing, the samples were prepared at the respective dry densities for each compaction technique, in order to study the effect of structure anisotropy on the swelling behavior of the soil. Further, in order to check the effect of fabric orientation on the swell behavior, both horizontal and vertical samplings were done from the compaction mold and the resulting degree of swell was determined in both the cases. The studies carried out indicate that, the anisotropy brought by varying the degree and method of compaction as well as orientation has a considerable effect on the swell behavior of Al-Qatif soil.

  14. CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VOLCANIC ASH IN INDONESIA FOR SOIL STABILIZATION: MORPHOLOGY AND MINERAL CONTENT Download Article

    Devi Oktaviana Latif, Ahmad Rifa’i and Kabul Basah Suryolelono
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2606-2610)
    • No of Download = 1039

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    Indonesia region which has approximately 83 active volcanoes are a source of wealth of this region. The last five years, active volcanoes in Indonesia, Mount Merapi, Kelud and Sinabung eruption issuing experiencing the abundant material. A volcanic ash from the eruption of volcanic material can be used as soil stabilization. Volcanic ash is a pozzolanic material which can be used as a soil stabilizing agent. However, it should be done the first step characterization testing of chemical properties, mineralogy and morphology volcanic ash from different sources. Accordingly, this paper presents results of a test chemical characteristics, mineralogy and morphology of volcanic ash in Indonesia derived from the Mount Merapi, mount Sinabung and mount Kelud using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Based on specific gravity test results on some volcanic ash in Indonesia, it can be classified in light material category. Merapi, kelud and Sinabung volcanic ash has a different shape morphology. Merapi is a form of fibrous glass particles Contain elongated vesicles. While, the texture Sinabung is a berry-like glass particles show angular blocky forms and texture kelud are sponge like glass. The SEM-EDS test obtained Si content of the three types of volcanic ash ranges 45-60% and elements of Al ranges 14-20%. This can be a reference for further research on the utilization of materials of volcanic ash as a pozzolanic material in soil stabilization.

  15. COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH FOR SWELLING SOILS REMEDIES Download Article

    Radhi M AlZubaidi, Kawkab AlRawi and Ahmed AlFalahi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2611-2619)
    • No of Download = 507

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    The effect of drying and remolding on undisturbed expansive soil samples were investigated at different periods. The results showed that the swelling potentials for remolded samples were higher than those for undisturbed samples for different periods of testing. The results also showed that final swells and swell pressures increased as the initial moisture contents decrease for both remolded and undisturbed samples. The swelling potential increased as the initial dry density increases for both remolded and undisturbed expansive soil samples, and vice versa The cement dust used as a new additive material to decrease the swelling potential of the expansive soil. The results showed that the plasticity index, linear shrinkage, and clay minerals decreased with increasing cement dust percentage, where 50% of the montmorillonite disappeared after treatment the soil with 5% cement dust. The effect of cement dust columns on the swelling potential of the soil also studied extensively. The cement dust columns were embedded in the middle of the expansive soils using CBR mould .The results showed that the swelling potential decreased with increasing number of cement dust columns and when increasing the diameter of the cement dust columns ,a distinctive decrease in the swelling potentials were recorded. When decreasing the densities and increasing the diameters of cement dust columns resulted in decreasing the swelling potentials of the expansive soil. The swelling of the expansive soil been decreased when increasing the number of reinforced and non-reinforced cement dust columns. The swelling potentials showed distinctive decrease when the lengths of the reinforced cement dust columns increased.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF SOIL PERMEABILITY IN PRAMBANAN TEMPLE YARD BASED ON DEVELOPMENT OF IN SITU TEST Download Article

    Ahmad Rifa’i, Yuji Takeshita and Mitsuru Komatsu
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2620-2625)
    • No of Download = 430

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    Prambanan Temple is a cultural site which has been declared as world cultural heritage that is required to be conserved. Due to heavy equipment activities during maintenance period after Yogyakarta earthquake in May, 2006, soil in temple yard become dense, and ponding occurred after rainfall. A poodle layer and a drainage system has ever built to avoid such a problem, but the pond still didn’t stop appearing after rain. Permeability parameter needs to be characterized to find exact method of solution. This experiment used Constant Discharge method which suitable for permeability test of sandy soil. The procedure were carried out from unsaturated until saturated soil condition. Volumetric water content were being monitored by using soil moisture probe. The results were value of permeability coefficient from unsaturated until saturated condition. The value of permeability coefficient and soil type characterization was mapping based on geographic reference using software Arcview GIS 3.3. Developed instruments were quite efficient and easy to be implemented on determining field soil permeability coefficient of sandy soil. Using constant discharge model, the value of unsaturated soil permeability can be obtained without establishing the matrix suction. The result of soil permeability characterization mapping can be used to determine the alternative solution of the ponding problem.

  17. INFLUENCE OF ANTECEDENT PRECIPITATION ON SLOPE FAILURES AT THE YOKOGAKI-TOGE PASS Download Article

    Yuko Ishida, Tsuyoshi Kibayashi, Tatsuo Konegawa, Masamitsu Fujimoto and Ryoichi Fukagawa
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2626-2632)
    • No of Download = 694

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    The heritage of many cultures of the world consists of buildings, including shrines, temples, and ruins; only two such heritages have places of pilgrimage that incorporate roads. One of these is the Kumano pilgrimage route, along which there is a risk of sediment disasters. In 2011, Typhoon Talas caused collapses at Yokogaki-toge, which is part of the Kumano pilgrimage route. Two studies examining the localized characteristics of the rainfall, and how the rainfall contributed to slope failures at Yokogaki-toge, are described in this paper. Seepage flow analysis was carried out based on two types of rainfall, which enabled us to identify the characteristics of the rainfall event which triggered the collapse. Our results indicate that the characteristics of antecedent precipitation affect the infiltration characteristics, and the formation of a saturated zone. Localized rainfall was observed at multiple locations within Yokogaki-toge, with regional variations in the amount of rainfall. North-facing slopes are subjected to more rainfall than south-facing slopes, which may cause more weathering of these north-facing slopes.

  18. MODELLING GROUND RESPONSE FOR DEEP EXCAVATION IN SOFT GROUND Download Article

    Choo C. Yong and Erwin Oh
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2633-2642)
    • No of Download = 1662

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    Due to its simplicity in use and input parameters can be straightforwardly determined (from in-situ tests, laboratory tests and empirical correlations), linear elastic perfectly-plastic Mohr-Coulomb (MC) model remains a favourite constitutive modelling choice to Geotechnical engineers. Non-linear Hardening Soil (HS) model is an improvement of MC model. It is not commonly used mainly due to lack of appropriate non-linear drained stiffness parameters from laboratory tests and field calibrations. Using a deep excavation project as a case study, this paper presents a comparison of MC and HS models in assessing wall deflection. The numerical models are established based on soil parameters interpreted from available soil investigation. It was found from back analysis of a case history that laboratory tests and empirical correlations grossly underestimated the drained stiffness parameters. In order to close the gaps between predicted and observed deflections, the drained stiffness parameters have to be increased by six-fold and more than eight-fold for MC Model and HS Model, respectively.

  19. BASE RESISTANCE OF OPEN-ENDED PILES EVALUATED BY VARIOUS DESIGN METHODS Download Article

    Janaka J. Kumara, Yoshiaki Kikuchi, Takashi Kurashina and Taichi Hyodo
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2643-2650)
    • No of Download = 1317

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    The design bearing capacity of an open-ended pile depends largely on the accuracy of the design method. Although the knowledge of shaft resistance has been understood quite well, the base resistance has not yet been completely understood due to the effects of soil plugging. The mechanisms of soil plugging is yet to be fully understood particularly for large diameter and long length piles installed in large construction projects. This paper compares the base resistance of two open-ended field piles constructed in the Tokyo Bay project evaluated by various design methods including cone penetration test (CPT)- and standard penetration test (SPT)-based methods. In total, five design methods including the conventional American Petroleum Institute (API) approach were included. In Japan, SPT-based design methods are used in practice. The CPT-based design methods, which are not popular in Japan were also included to evaluate their effectiveness. The CPT-design methods discussed in this paper classify open-ended piles into plugged or unplugged modes. The results reveal that the Fugro (i.e., CPT-based) and the API design methods overestimate the base resistance. In contrast, the ICP (i.e., CPT-based) and Port and Airport Research Institute (PARI) (i.e., SPT-based) design methods underestimate the base resistance. Based on the results, we can recommend the University of Western Australia (UWA) design method (i.e., CPT-based) as it produces the nearest results to the actual base resistance measured from the field load tests.

  20. CU, CO AND NI CONTAMINATION INDEX FOR RIVER USING RIVER INSECTS AND RIVER PLANTS Download Article

    Takuma Kubohara and Hiroyuki Ii
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2651-2658)
    • No of Download = 737

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    Useful species as an index of metal contamination needs a high metal concentration in a contaminated area and low metal concentration in a non-contaminated area. Moreover, it needs a high metal concentration factor. Metal concentrations of moss were high in the Cu mine area (31 to 21,000 and 2 to 200 mg/kg-dry for Cu and Co) and were low in the other areas (2 to 87 and 2 to 33 mg/kg-dry for Cu and Co). Ni concentrations of caddice-worm were high in the serpentinite area (9 to 590 mg/kg-dry) and were low in the other areas (2 to 74 mg/kg-dry). Moss had the highest concentration factor (160,000, 4,600 and 59,000 for Cu, Co and Ni) among river plants. Therefore, it was clarified that moss was useful species for an index of Cu, Co and Ni contamination among river plants based upon its metal concentration and concentration factor. In river insects, metal concentrations of crane fly larva were high in the Cu mine area (50 to 1,400 and 1 to 82 mg/kg-dry for Cu and Co) and were low in the other areas (11 to 130 and 0.7 to 10 mg/kg-dry for Cu and Co). Crane fly larva had the highest concentration factor for Cu (46,000) and also kept high concentration factor for Co (2,700) among river insects. Ni concentrations of caddice-worm were high in the serpentinite area (52 to 220 mg/kg-dry) and were low in the other areas (0.3 to 20 mg/kg-dry). Caddice-worm had the highest Ni concentration factor (22,000) among river insects. Therefore, it was clarified that crane fly larva was useful species for an index of Cu and Co contamination and caddice-worm was useful species for an index of Ni contamination based upon their metal concentrations and concentration factors.

  21. ESTIMATION OF EVAPORATION RATE OF SURFACE WATER USING HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN ISOTOPIC RATIOS Download Article

    Masahiro Yamashita and Hiroyuki Ii
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2659-2664)
    • No of Download = 676

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    Both evaporation rate and temperature can be estimated from δD and δ18O values of water before and after evaporation. From laboratory evaporation test results of water under uniform temperature condition, relations between evaporation rate, δD and δ18O values of water before and after evaporation were expressed at each temperature as the following equations, Y = -0.44X1 + 12.67X2 + 50.90 : 20 degrees C, Y = 0.30X1 + 1.88X2 + 41.86  :  25 degrees C, Y = -1.70X1 +11.80X2 + 7.74  : 30 degrees C, Y = -0.11X1 + 6.37X2+ 34.74 : 35 degrees C, Y = -0.71X1 + 6.82X2+ 35.11: 40 degrees C and Y = -0.17X1 + 4.94X2 +30.05 :  50 degrees C. Y is evaporation rate. X1 is δDae – δDbe – 51.3. X2 is δ18Oae - δ18Obe -7.52. δDbe and δDae are δD values of water before and after evaporation. δ18Obe and δ18Oae are δ18O values of water before and after evaporation. Evaporation temperature can be also estimated from δD and δ18O values of water before and after evaporation. Relation was expressed by the equation, (δDae – δDbe – 51.3) / (δ18Oae - δ18Obe -7.52) = -0.064 × temperature + 7.45. From δD and δ18O distribution map of water before and after evaporation, both evaporation rate and temperature can be also estimated.

  22. CORAL SAND SOLIDIFICATION TEST THROUGH MICROBIAL CALCIUM CARBONATE PRECIPITATION USING PARARHODOBACTER SP. Download Article

    Md. Nakibul Hasan Khan, Suguru Shimazaki and Satoru Kawasaki
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2665-2670)
    • No of Download = 713

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    The coastal erosion has been a problem in associate with manmade construction. The maintenance and management is expensive for repair and rebuild the coast. Compared to the concrete structure coral sand solidification would considered to minimize cost. The present experimental study was conducted to coral sand solidification through microbial carbonate precipitation (MCP) using Pararhodobacter sp. Ureolytic bacteria; Pararhodobacter sp. was isolated from the beachrock in Nago, Okinawa, Japan. ZoBell2216E as a medium for marine bacteria was used for the culture of the bacteria. Suitability for the use in MCP syringe test, growth properties of the bacteria were observed in various cultural conditions. MCP sand solidification test was carried in 30mL Terumo syringe injected bacterial culture fluid.  Strength of the specimen was measured by needle penetration test. The maximum value of the absorbance at bacterial growth curve was constant if the added amount of the medium is 100mL. The correlation coefficient of determination for absorbance measurements and viable cell count measurements was obtained 0.5478. In MCP syringe test, pH of the specimen was decreased and Ca2+ concentration was increase with time.  The estimated value of unconfined comprehensive strength (UCS) also increased with time. The maximum value of UCS of the specimen was 12MPa. The estimated UCS values of the specimen produced by sand solidification test for 14 days curing time have been achieved. 

  23. ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF SODIUM ACETATE AND OTHER HYGROSCOPIC SALTS Download Article

    John V. Smith
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2671-2678)
    • No of Download = 1094

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    A cotton textile dried with various hygroscopic salts then contaminated with Staphylococcus epidermidis and dried again, showed remarkable reduction in viable bacterial cells. Of the salts investigated, sodium acetate was found to have the greatest antibacterial effect. Calcium chloride, magnesium chloride and magnesium sulfate, also showed some antibacterial effect. For sodium acetate, drying for 24 h reduced the count of viable cells to 1.5%, and less, relative to the count in the control sample. For the other salts the count of viable cells after drying was more variable and ranged from 0.3% to 44% relative to the count in the control sample. It is inferred that the hygroscopic nature of the salts may enhance the effect of desiccation in killing bacteria during drying. The results indicate that salt-enhanced drying is a new class of sanitizing method warranting further investigation.

  24. MANAGING VALORIZATION OF DREDGED SEDIMENTS VIA AN INNOVATIVE MATHEMATICAL MODEL USED FOR CIVIL ENGINEERING APPLICATION Download Article

    M.Benzerzour, N.Abriak and R.Mansi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2679-2683)
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    Several years ago, global consumption of materials used in the field of Civil Engineering and especially materials for public works, has strongly growth. The use of marine and/or river dredged sediments presents a promising alternative to deal with the problematic of sustainable development. In this paper, we study a management problem of existing treatments for these sediments. Looking to the economical and legislative obligations associated with the treatment process, these operations present one of the main encountered problems during the valorization process of sediments. The solution for this problem is to find an optimal set of treatments respecting these economical and legislative constraints. This optimal solution is obtained by solving a non-linear mathematical model with binaries variables. The proposed resolution algorithm for this model is based on a linearization of the nonlinear constraints in order to solve a simple problem using a solver.

  25. EFFECTIVENESS OF JACKFRUIT SEED STARCH AS COAGULANT AID IN LANDFILL LEACHATE TREATMENT PROCESS Download Article

    Mohd SuffianYusoff, Noor Aina Mohamad Zuki and Mohd Faiz Muaz Ahmad Zamri
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (2684-2687)
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    Aluminium sulphate (alum), ferric chloride and polyaluminium chloride (PAC) are the most common coagulants being used for leachate coagulation-flocculation treatment. However, the impact of these residual’s coagulants have sparked huge concern ceaselessly. Therefore, development of natural coagulant as an alternative coagulant for treatment process has been given full attentions. In this attempt jackfruit seed starch (JSS) which produce by extraction method was used as coagulant aid with PAC. The removal efficiency was determined using jar test method. The removal of leachate pollutants was compared between PAC coagulant with and without JSS. Interestingly the JSS coagulant aid has succeed to reduce the dosage of PAC from 900 mg/L to 600 mg/L by increasing the removal of COD, colour and ammonical nitrogen (NH3-N) up to 33.6%, 93.6%, and 13.1 % respectively. While the removal for turbidity and suspended solid (SS) were maintained at 94% and 92 % respectively. The addition of JSS has succeeded to reduce 33.3% the usage amount of PAC in treatment process of landfill leachate. The result proved that JSS was effective to be used as coagulant aid landfill leachate treatment.