Articles

  1. ANALYSIS OF AXIAL LOADED PILE IN MULTILAYERED SOIL USING NODAL EXACT FINITE ELEMENT MODEL Download Article

    Chinnapat Buachart, Chayanon Hansapinyo and Worsak Kanok-Nukulchai
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (1-7)
    • No of Download = 405

    Abstract

    close

    The nodal exact displacement based finite element method for analyzing axially loaded pile embedded in multilayered of finite depth of elastic soil is presented. The condition of shape function by which exact value may be reproduced at the nodal points regarding a few number of elements is investigated. The examined shape functions which satisfy the homogeneous governing equations in each layer of elastic soil are introduced to obtain the so-called exact element stiffness matrix. Then the stiffness matrix of proposed shape function was constructed via total potential energy principle. The results obtained from proposed finite element were compared with analytical solutions from literature. Axial force and displacement solutions of the pile embedded in multilayered soil obtained from proposed finite element model show exact agreement with analytical solutions and data from the available literature.

  2. ESTIMATING THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS OF THE CAR SHIFTING BEHAVIOR ALONG EDSA Download Article

    Nicanor R. Roxas, Jr., Alexis M. Fillone and Krister Ian Daniel Roquel
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (8-14)
    • No of Download = 436

    Abstract

    close

    Metro Manila is the most populated region in the country. It is the largest contributor to the economy of the country at around 40 percent. Situated in this metropolis is the Epifanio Delos Santos Avenue (EDSA), which currently serves an estimated average of 330,000 vehicles daily. This number has greatly increased since the early 2000s. Because of EDSA’s significance, many transportation-related studies had focused on it. Among the largest studies is the Metro Manila Urban Transportation Integration Study (MMUTIS) that was completed in 1999 and has recently been updated through the MMUTIS Update and Capacity Enhancement Project (MUCEP). There is also another ongoing project entitled Integrated and Optimal Scheduling of a Public Transport System in Metro Manila (PUBFix), which is funded by the government (DOST-PCIEERD). The project intends to improve the public transportation system in the metropolis, specifically bus operation along EDSA. In this research, the aim is to formulate stated preference (SP) logit choice models in order to predict the mode choices of commuters along EDSA. Such results are important in order to determine the changes in travel behavior of commuters when certain policies and measures are introduced. An EMME model is also prepared for this study in order to quantify the differences between baseline and hypothetical scenarios. Aside from quantifying the difference of these scenarios in terms of environmental effects, other traffic parameters were also calculated in order for transport policymakers to be guided in considering more appropriate measures.

  3. PRESENCE STATE OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN THE OHTAKIGAWA RIVER WATERSHED FROM THE FOOT OF Mt. ONTAKE Download Article

    Akiko Usami, Megumi Nobori, Akihiko Yagi and Eiji Iwatsuki
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (15-19)
    • No of Download = 404

    Abstract

    close

    This paper is aimed at understanding the influence of Mt. Ontake volcanic activity on the
    water quality of the Ohtakigawa River watershed. For this purpose, various properties of trace elements are
    obtained. The Ohtakigawa, which flows along the southern foot of Mt. Ontake, has several tributaries such as
    Nigorigawa River, Shirakawa River, Shimokurosawa River, and Uguigawa River. Seven sampling stations
    were selected in the four tributaries (four points) and the Ohtakigawa (three points). Filtration of samples was
    carried out with teflon filter paper (PTFE, 0.5μm, φ 47mm), and the samples were separated into dissolved
    and suspended matters. Trace elements contained in them were analyzed by using the ICPE. The
    concentrations of the trace elements were high in the following order: the Nigorigawa (Al: 6.16mg L-1), the
    Ohtakigawa after the confluence of the Nigorigawa (Al: 1.92mg L-1 and 0.88mg L-1), and the others (Al:
    0.06-0.70mg L-1). This result indicates that among the four tributaries, the Nigorigawa plays a predominant
    role in the change in the water quality of the Ohtakigawa.

  4. INVESTIGATION OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF RECYCLED CONCRETE WITH ITS RELATED EMBODIED ENERGY AND PRODUCTION COST: SAUDI ARABIAN BASED STUDY Download Article

    Badr T. Alsulami
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (20-25)
    • No of Download = 393

    Abstract

    close

    This paper presents research results for evaluating effects of utilizing recycled concrete aggregates on the mechanical properties of concrete and its related production cost and embedded energy. The research methodology of this paper includes an experimental work has been designed to determine the mechanical properties of the alternative concrete mix at ages 7, 14, and 28 days, then production cost and embedded energy for each concrete mix were calculated. The results show that the strength of proposed mix design concrete has been negatively affected by recycled concrete aggregate, and the cost of producing recycled concrete is more expensive than ordinary concrete. However, the embedded energy that is utilized in producing recycled concrete is less than ordinary concrete. The originality of this research is based on experiments that are conducted to determine the mechanical properties of concrete made by recycled concrete aggregates and its related cost of production and embedded energy.

  5. THE INTEGRATION OF HUMAN THERMAL COMFORT IN AN OUTDOOR CAMPUS LANDSCAPE IN A TROPICAL CLIMATE Download Article

    Ariya Aruninta, Yoshihito Kurazumi, Kenta Fukagawa and Jin Ishii
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (26-32)
    • No of Download = 561

    Abstract

    close

    The purpose of this research is to study and compare outdoor spaces with different cooling devices in the tropical climate of the city campus in the CBD of Bangkok, Thailand. The study aimed to find the most comfortable outdoor space on a green campus, referring to the UI Green Metric World University Ranking indicators, with a case study of Chulalongkorn University, which is a wet, tropical area in the city center. The ratio of the area on campus that is covered with planted vegetation (lawns, gardens) is provided as a percentage of the total site area and is the subject of comparison. In particular, the microclimate seems to be an important criterion of the physical design features of an outdoor space: a) with cooling devices, such as shading and fountains, and b) without cooling devices, such as pavement and open lawn. The cooling effect of these devices, which are evaluated by the thermal comfort measurement results, responded according to the tropical environment of the campus. This study explains the micro/macroclimatic effects of the landscape features. The survey measured the meteorological conditions of the outdoor spaces. The study determined that the shortwave solar radiation and longwave radiation from different materials should play an important role in a new paradigm for green design and planning.

  6. BEHAVIOR OF MODEL GROUP PILES SUBJECTED TO LATERAL SOIL MOVEMENT IN SAND Download Article

    Saad Farhan Ibrahim and Mohammed Khachi Hatem
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (33-38)
    • No of Download = 537

    Abstract

    close

    Laboratory model tests have been carried out to explore the behavior of piles subjected to lateral soil movement in the sand. The results of a single pile test and ten tests on of group piles arranged in a row (perpendicular to the direction of soil movement) are presented. Different parameters were utilized in these tests, (e.g., pile spacing, number of piles within a group and pile head condition). Group effect was calculated using group factor (Fm) which is defined in terms of the measured maximum bending moments of an individual with the group and that of the single pile. The results showed that the maximum bending moment of group piles decreases from the single pile with decreasing pile spacing and the pile behaves essentially the same as a single pile when the pile spacing is 7d or more. The maximum reduction of the maximum bending moments of about (17%) and (28%) as compared with that for the standard single pile may be observed for a pile spacing of 3d for the free and capped headed condition, respectively. The number of piles does not appear to have a significant effect on the group factor Fm of piles, except for the free headed inner piles who's the group factors appear to decrease with increasing the number of piles within a group.

  7. LINKED SIMULATION-OPTIMIZATION MODEL FOR OPTIMUM HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF WATER RETAINING STRUCTURES CONSTRUCTED ON PERMEABLE SOILS Download Article

    Muqdad Al-Juboori and Bithin Datta
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (39-46)
    • No of Download = 510

    Abstract

    close

    Hydraulic Water Retaining Structures (HWRS), such as dams, weirs, and regulators are important projects and necessary for water management. Seepage analysis results under HWRS substantially influences the design of HWRS. One of the biggest challenges in the design of HWRS is to determine the accurate seepage characteristics with complex flow conditions, and simultaneously to find the optimum design considering safety and cost. Therefore, this study concentrates on developing a linked simulation-optimization (S-O) model for complex flow conditions. This is achieved via linking the numerical seepage simulation (Geo-Studio/SEEPW) with the Genetic Algorithm (GA) evolutionary optimization solver. Since a direct linking of the numerical model with optimization model is computationally expensive and time-consuming, well-trained Support vector machine (SVM) surrogate models are linked to the optimization model instead of a numerical model within the S-O model. The seepage characteristics of optimum design obtained by S-O are evaluated for accuracy by comparing these with the numerical seepage modeling (SEEPW) solutions. The comparison, in general, shows good agreements. Accordingly, the S-O methodology is potentially applicable for providing the safe, efficient and economical design of HWRS constructed on a complex seepage flow domain.

  8. FERROCEMENT - BRICK SANDWICH WALL APPLIED TO NON-ENGINEERED HOUSES Download Article

    Febrin A Ismail, M Sofian Asmirza, Abdul Hakam and Fauzan
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (47-51)
    • No of Download = 439

    Abstract

    close

    Indonesian houses are generally categorized as non-engineered buildings that are constructed
    without any proper structural analyses. Bricks have long been used for hundreds of years as main materials to
    make houses for the reasons of simplicity and construction speed. Lesson learnt from the Padang earthquake
    in 2009 concluded many casualties are resulted from the collapsed houses made of bricks. Ferrocement as a
    construction material that made of wire mesh and mortar plaster become alternative to be used for retrofitting
    brick-houses. In this paper, structural analyses of a typical non-engineered house and a retrofitted house
    made of ferrocement-brick sandwich material are described. The ferrocement-brick composite material has a
    role as the main structure in the non-engineered house. The series of tests on that sandwich material has been
    done prior to the analyses. The results of the tests are then used to determine the strength criteria of the
    analyzed house. A structural analysis of the house is done by using the finite element computer program. As
    a comparison, an analysis of an ordinary brick wall house is described. As previously thought, the house with
    walls made of the ferrocement-brick sandwich material can withstand the given earthquake loads. It is
    concluded that the ferrocement-brick sandwich material is very useful to build earthquake resistant houses in
    seismic prone areas such as the West Sumatra.

  9. INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF PLANT VARIETY AND SOIL SEDIMENT TO THE COASTAL ABRASION IN WEST SUMATRA Download Article

    Bambang Istijono, Abdul Hakam, and Taufika Ophiyandri
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (52-57)
    • No of Download = 446

    Abstract

    close

    Indonesia has many islands that are suffering from beach abrasion. This phenomenon has been often happening and is categorized in one of the National Disasters. West Sumatra beaches with the total length of about 600 km stretch along the west side of Sumatra Island were directly opposite to the Indian Ocean. The waves from the Indian Ocean in any circumstance may cause abrasion to damage houses and public facilities. Factors that affect coastal abrasion include coastal geometry, wave parameters, soil sediment and beach plantations. An investigation of the plant species and soil sediment on the West Sumatra beach has been done. The effects of the last two factors on beach abrasion are then elaborated in this paper. It is found that some beach vegetations have shown remarkable role to reduce abrasion impact. Meanwhile, the type of soil sediments in which associated with physical properties showed also significant effect. From this study, it was found that vegetation roots will protect the beaches together with the soils. This investigation also concludes that coastal endemic plants in the West Sumatra need to be explored as a mitigation action to reduce the abrasion impact.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON BOX-UP COLD-FORMED STEEL COLUMNS IN FIRE Download Article

    Fadhluhartini Muftah, Mohd Syahrul Hisyam Mohd Sani, Ahmad Rasidi Osman, Shahrin Mohammad and Shek Poi Ngian
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (58-64)
    • No of Download = 411

    Abstract

    close

    Cold-formed steel is a popular material with various advantages. Its easy production and assembly give engineer an option to speed the construction process. However, thinness relates to the major issue of buckling, especially when dealing with high temperature. The unprotected cold-formed steel behaviour under fire is expected to have a little strength as compared to hot-rolled steel. Information on such behaviour is still limited. Fire resistance testing on built-up box CFS column was presented in this paper. Two fire resistance tests were carried out under compression load. The Standard ISO 834 Fire Resistance Test under 50% and 70% degree of utilisation measured the temperatures at several points of the steel column surface by using a surface thermocouple and axial column deformation. For reference purpose, one same static test at ambient temperature was carried out to assess the load bearing capacity. Results found that the failure temperature of built-up CFS could reach up to 515 ºC and 443 ºC within 8 minutes and 7 minutes resistant time for 50 % and 70% degree of utilisation, respectively. Based on deformation analysis, buckling temperature of the column was 448 ºC and 394 ºC with a critical time of 7 minutes for 50 % and 70% degree of utilisation, respectively. This concluded that the higher degree of utilisation results in lower critical temperatures of the columns.

  11. TREND OF DAILY RAINFALL AND TEMPERATURE IN PENINSULAR MALAYSIA BASED ON GRIDDED DATA SET Download Article

    Chee-Loong Wong, Zulkifli Yusop and Tarmizi Ismail
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (65-72)
    • No of Download = 502

    Abstract

    close

    A gridded data set with the size of 0.05 degree resolution (approximately 5.5km) which representing ground observations of daily rainfall and temperature of Peninsular Malaysia have been created over 1975-2006. The integration and processing of the variety of data sources and data assessment are also presented. The 32-year period of the daily gridded rainfall and temperature dataset were assessed to see how the daily mean rainfall and temperature have changed over time and space. Northeast monsoon (NEM) contributes more rainfall over the country compare to southwest monsoon (SWM). The rainfall trend during NEM is found significantly increased at the 95% confidence level (7mm/season/year), meanwhile, SWM rainfall does not pose any significant trends. Both NEM and SWM temperature trends show significant increasing trends at 95% confidence level at 0.32oC/decade and 0.31oC/decade, respectively over the 32-year period. A drastic increased of mean temperature (1.20oC) was found in Klang Valley over the 20-year period. The mean decadal temperature was found consistently decrease as it approached the northern, east coast and southern part of the country.

  12. SPATIO-TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF LAND USE AND LAND COVER CHANGES IN ARID REGION OF SAUDI ARABIA Download Article

    Eman Albalawi, Ashraf Dewan and Robert Corner
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (73-81)
    • No of Download = 432

    Abstract

    close

    Changes in land use/land cover (LU/LC) are a major factor driving global environmental change, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. As a result, expansion of agriculture and urbanization is occurring in ecologically fragile lands. This paper analyzed and assessed land use/land cover changes in an agricultural center Tabuk in Saudi Arabia, object-based classification technique (OBC) using Landsat images for seven years (1985, 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2009, and 2015) were used for LU/LC analysis. The urban growth type for Tabuk was measured using Urban Growth Analysis Tool (UGAT) within a GIS. The study found an increase in urban areas from 48 km2 in 1985 to 315 km2 in 2015. A significant increase of 61% in agricultural land, from 1985 (112 km2) to (577 km2) in 2015. This expansion is occurring at the expense of the barren land with a loss of 768 km2. An overall classification accuracy ranged from 94% to 97% across all images. The urban growth type for Tabuk was determined as 72% to be of the extension-type over the study period, with urban areas expanding in a direction towards the northwest and west area. Assessing spatial and temporal LU/LC change has aided to understand the impacts of expanding agriculture and urban areas. The LU/LC maps could aid government planners and decision-makers to analyze and manage agricultural and urban growth.

  13. THE EFFECT OF VOID RATIO, MOISTURE CONTENT AND VERTICAL PRESSURE ON THE HYDROCOMPRESSION SETTLEMENT OF COPPER MINE TAILING Download Article

    Mary Ann Q. Adajar and Miller DL. Cutora
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (82-89)
    • No of Download = 406

    Abstract

    close

    Copper mine tailing (CMT) has the potential to be used as embankment material but this waste material contains plasticity. Soils containing plasticity are highly reactive to any form of liquid and considered to have greater compressibility when exposed to water. As an embankment material, CMT is susceptible to the different environmental condition which can cause significant settlement. One possible cause of volume loss is the compression due to wetting or hydrocompression. This study aims to determine the consolidation properties and hydrocompression settlement of waste materials with plasticity like copper mine tailing when used as embankment material. One-dimensional consolidation tests were performed on reconstituted specimens. The obtained consolidation properties indicate that CMT is very slightly compressible under over-consolidated condition to moderately compressible under normally consolidated condition. The hydrocompression settlement of CMT in relation to initial void ratio, moisture content and vertical pressure was investigated. The hydrocompression settlement increases with increasing pressure until the preconsolidation pressure is reached, then decreases with pressure beyond the preconsolidation pressure. Samples with lower density and initial water content less than its optimum exhibit greater hydrocompression settlement. The determined hydrocompression strain in every condition is less than 5% which means that CMT has a degree of collapsibility classified as low to negligible despite having plasticity. CMT, when used as embankment materials, should be prepared with initial moisture content slightly more than its optimum, it should be in its very dense condition and preloaded with vertical stress more than its preconsolidation pressure to make hydrocompression strain negligible.

  14. TEMPERATURE CHANGE AND THE TOTAL STRESS ANOMALY IN PASTE BACKFILL Download Article

    Alsidqi Hasan, Ting Wee Kiet, Fauzan Sahdi, Siti Noor Linda Taib, Norsuzailina Mohamed Sutan, Badhrulhisham Abdul Aziz and Andy Fourie
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (90-95)
    • No of Download = 465

    Abstract

    close

    This paper presents preliminary results from a laboratory backfill model test in order to explain the effect of temperature change during the cement hydration on the total stress within cemented paste backfill. It is conducted via temperature control test in the absence of the cement. This investigation is an attempt to resolve an anomalous behavior reported in recent full-scale monitoring reports, where the total vertical stress at the stope base shows a progressive increase after backfilling is terminated. The result in this paper shows that the total vertical stress is not affected by the level of the temperature but rather by the temperature gradient. The empirical relationship between the temperature gradient and the change in the total vertical stress is proposed. The total stress anomaly found in the full-scale monitoring of paste backfill could be explained by the finding.

  15. INTEGRATED SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING AND GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS FOR TSUNAMI RISK ASSESSMENT Download Article

    Abu Bakar Sambah, Fusanori Miura, Guntur and Fuad
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (96-101)
    • No of Download = 241

    Abstract

    close

    Tsunami risk is defined as a combination of the danger posed by tsunami hazard, the vulnerability of people to an event (exposure), and the probability of destructive tsunami or likelihood of the tsunami occurring. Tsunami risk is also defined as the mathematical calculation of tsunami vulnerability and tsunami hazard, and it can be assessed using a spatial multi-criteria. The study applied the combination of the element at risk to assess tsunami risk area along the coastal area of East Java Indonesia off the Indian Ocean. Remote sensing approach followed by geospatial analysis into tsunami risk assessment along with the existing perspective evolving the role of Geographical Information System. The existing physical vulnerability parameter was analyzed and evaluated. All parameters in both tsunami vulnerability and tsunami risk assessment were analyzed through weighted overlay in geospatial analysis, in which the criteria’s weight was calculated through Analytical Hierarchy Process. The results were provided as thematic maps of tsunami vulnerability and tsunami risk. Tsunami risk map described five classes of risk from very low to very high based on the geospatial analysis. It described that coastal area with low elevation identified as high risks to the tsunami. The coastal area with high density of vegetation described a low level of tsunami risk. The existence of river and another water canals along coastal area were also identified as important parameters in generating tsunami risk map. Risk map highlights the coastal areas with a strong need for evacuation capacities, including evacuation route and evacuation building.

  16. SOIL-STRUCTURE INTERFACE BEHAVIOR OF CEMENTED-PASTE BACKFILL MATERIAL MIXED WITH MINING WASTE Download Article

    Mary Ann Q. Adajar and Wincent Nicole K. Pabilona
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (102-108)
    • No of Download = 421

    Abstract

    close

    The use of mining wastes as a component of cemented paste backfill provides an environmentally acceptable method of waste disposal at a lesser cost as the method does not require tailing dams for storing the large volume of wastes. This study determines the applicability of cemented-paste backfill materials mixed with aggregate quarry wastes as ground support to concrete structures. Aggregate quarry waste with varying fine contents was used as a substitute for sand in cemented-paste backfill and the mixture was referred to as cemented-paste tailing backfill (CPTB). Its micro fabric structure was determined through SEM-EDX tests. Test results showed that CPTB with 20% and 40% fine contents has acceptable values of strength properties in terms of its unconfined compressive strength and interface friction angle. The unconfined compressive strength in relation to its curing period is in the range of 120 kPa to 150 kPa which can be described as having stiff consistency. The stress-strain interface behavior between CPTB and concrete structure was evaluated through a direct shear test using strain rates that simulate the rapid and slow rates of loading. In both conditions, the stress-strain behavior exhibits strain softening. The average interface friction angle is 38o which can be associated with its dense condition. The modified hyperbolic model was applied to evaluate the soil-structure interface behavior of CPTB. Hyperbolic parameters were formulated to predict the interface shear stress-shear strain behavior of the CPTB when in contact with concretes structure at any value of shear strain and normal effective stress.

  17. LANDSLIDES AND PRECIPITATION CHARACTERISTICS DURING THE TYPHOON LIONROCK IN IWATE PREFECTURE, JAPAN Download Article

    Thapthai Chaithong, Daisuke Komori, Yuto Sukegawa, Yoshiya Touge, Yuta Mitobe and Satoshi Anzai
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (109-114)
    • No of Download = 399

    Abstract

    close

    In August 2016, the typhoon Lionrock made landfall on Japan's northeastern coast and caused floods and landslides. Lionrock brought heavy precipitation to Japan, which Shimotokusari station (33201) recorded 24-hour rainfall amount over 200 mm and the peak rainfall intensity was approximately 65 mm/hr. The total cost of damage within the Iwate prefecture is over 700 million dollars, moreover, 20 lives were lost and 4 people missing. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present the results of the post-disaster investigation, including, the back-analysis of landslides and precipitation due to the typhoon Lionrock. The rainfall and landslides relationship is significantly important for rainfall intensity-duration threshold. For this typhoon, the empirical rainfall intensity-duration threshold has been derived as I = 20.24D-0.33. The slope failure could be broadly categorized into the debris flow, surficial erosion, and soil slide, moreover, occurred on slopes ranging from 19 to 58 degrees.

  18. INITIATIVE URBAN WATER STUDIES AT DEPOK, PERI-URBAN CITY - TOWARD THE IMPLEMENTATION OF WATER SENSITIVE CITY CONCEPT Download Article

    Firdaus Ali, Tito Latif Indra, Irene Sondang, Esty Suyanti and Ahmad Zubair
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (115-120)
    • No of Download = 217

    Abstract

    close

    The city has increasingly been burdened with the increase of urbanization. The effect of this dynamic is the pressure to the urban environment, specifically on the supply of water and the number of water space. The city of Depok as a peri-urban city continuously experience infrastructure development as the consequences of the capital city, Jakarta’s spill over. It resulted in the diminishing amount and quality of water supply and space. Water Sensitive Cities is an innovative approach that is based on similar experience in similar surroundings within Australian cities. The approach integrates the concept of the water cycle with urban development dynamics that consider to ecological equilibrium. To what extent the concept is implemented in one of the middle cities in Indonesia will therefore then be significant for the study of urban developments and water studies in Indonesia. Specifically for the case of Depok, Water Sensitive City studies will provide a guideline as to what will be required to be done with regards to the current condition of water supply and space in the middle city context. The research takes advantage of mix-method approach; content analysis as a lesson learned for Water Sensitive City in several cities and combined with GIS mapping to identify land-use condition comparing with the management of water supply. The research will outline the degree of Water Sensitive City implementation in Depok and what still required to be done. The research will also highlight the extent of which Water Sensitive City as an approach can be applicable in Depok and Indonesia in general.

  19. HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ROAD BASE MATERIALS BLENDED WITH FLY ASH AND BOTTOM ASH Download Article

    Jonathan R. Dungca, Joenel G. Galupino, Jesreel C. Alday, Maria Angelica F. Barretto, Matthew Kristoffer G. Bauzon and Angelo N. Tolentino
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (121-127)
    • No of Download = 360

    Abstract

    close

    Hydraulic conductivity is the ability of water to flow through a soil, should be considered when designing roads. Hydraulic conductivity should be employed when designing roads that will provide good drainage as well. Fly ash and bottom ash were utilized as partial substitutes to conventional road base materials in road base construction. The study aimed to prove that employing fly ash and bottom ash would increase the hydraulic conductivity characteristics of road base while also decreasing the disposal costs of the said coal by-products. Series of experiments were conducted to test the horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity of pure fly ash, pure bottom ash, pure conventional road base materials, and blends comprising of the said soil components. It was also established that horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity had a significant difference wherein the flow of water at the horizontal-direction is greater compared to the vertical direction.

  20. RISK MAPPING STUDIES OF HYDRO-METEOROLOGICAL HAZARD IN DEPOK MIDDLE CITY Download Article

    Jachrizal Soemabrata, Ahmad Zubair, Irene Sondang and Esti Suyanti
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (128-133)
    • No of Download = 220

    Abstract

    close

    Rapid population makes rapid activity at limitation space. It will increase the potential for conflict within natural or environmental resources. Urbanization in Indonesia cities results in the tight competition of resources between urban dwellers, especially in satellite city like Depok as the consequences Jakarta’s spill over. Depok more experiences with flood and landslide since the rapid population pressure. Instead of doing curative action deal with the disaster, this city should do preventive action by doing risk mapping. This research will guideline to identify the vulnerability and capacity of its city in dealing with hydro-meteorological hazard. It will conduct by mix method approach using GIS technique and statistical analysis to determine the risk mapping. This research will show the spatial variation of risk that (potential) occurred related to hydro-meteorological in Depok City. Through risk mapping studies, this study will examine the balancing of population growth with the environment acceptances at the middle city in Indonesia.

  21. VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN JEDDAH: A METHODOLOGICAL PROPOSAL Download Article

    Md Faiz Shah, Orsolya K. Kegyes-B., Richard P. Ray, Anas Ahmed and Ahmed Al-ghamadi
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (134-141)
    • No of Download = 426

    Abstract

    close

    The City of Jeddah in Saudi Arabia is expanding rapidly, in terms of new buildings and increasing population. The rapid urbanization leads to higher risk from seismic events; even in areas of moderate seismicity such as this city. The present study addresses the rapid evaluation of a large number of buildings in Jeddah involving steps to determine hazard, assessing building stock, and computing vulnerability with a scoring method from FEMA 155. Two districts were selected for investigation based on a cluster analysis applied to population and building data from the local municipality. One selected district was a contemporary developed urbanized area, and the other was a more traditional area. Such selection offered the possibility to compare vulnerability of buildings built according to different seismic codes and to make assumptions about the rest of the city based on typical structures of districts. The basic structural score was determined considering the building structure and moderate seismicity of the region using score modifiers, e.g. vertical irregularity score modifier; soil score modifier assuming sabkahs. The results of the investigation reveal a different level of vulnerability and areas where intervention is needed. The method can be applied for further analysis of the city.

  22. THE EFFECTS OF STEEL FIBERS EXTRACTED FROM WASTE TYRE ON CONCRETE CONTAINING PALM OIL FUEL ASH Download Article

    Fauzan, Febrin Anas Ismail, Rio Sandi, Nurhasan Syah and Anisa Prita Melinda
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (142-148)
    • No of Download = 319

    Abstract

    close

    Waste tires have been an increasing problem every year due to the increase in vehicle sales. In Indonesia, more than 50 million waste tires were generated every year. However, materials in waste tire such as textile and steel fibers, actually, can be used to improve the mechanical properties of the concrete. Recently, some researchers have been devoted to the utilization of steel fibers extracted from the waste tire (SFEFWT) on the concrete. This study focuses on the investigation of SFEFWT effect on the concrete containing palm oil fuel ash (POFA). Steel fibers were extracted from waste tires by manually cutting process and being cut to 1 inch (25.4 mm) length. A number of cylindrical and beam specimens of concrete containing 15% palm oil fuel ash by being partially replaced the weight of cement, with addition 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75% and 1% SFEFWT were cast and tested. The mechanical properties such as compressive, tensile and flexural strengths at the age of 28 days are studied for having prepared the concrete. The results show that the addition of SFEFWT on the concrete containing POFA improves the concrete strengths, particularly the tensile and flexural strengths. The more percentage of SFEFWT content on the POFA concrete results in the higher increase in tensile and flexural strengths. In addition, the presence of SFEFWT contributes to give higher bonding on concrete to control the crack opening on the POFA concrete.

  23. USE OF CARBON NANOTUBES IN THE RETROFITTING OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS WITH AN OPENING AND THE EFFECT OF DIRECT FIRE ON THEIR BEHAVIOUR Download Article

    Ahmed Hassan, Ata El-kareim Shoeib and Mostafa Abd El-Magied
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (149-158)
    • No of Download = 371

    Abstract

    close

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are used to enhance the performance of nano-composites because of their high strength and remarkable physical properties. An experimental study was designed to investigate the use of CNTs in a ferrocement mix as an advanced technique for externally retrofitting for shear zone opening of reinforced concrete beams. The main parameters in this work are opening size, ferrocement techniques (CNTs and wire mesh), and fire exposure. The ferrocement technique is used to retrofit the reduction of open beams strength, whether exposure to fire occurred or not. The burned beams are loaded at 30 kN at room temperature and then subjected to a direct fire, followed by cooling with water before the load was finally increased to failure. In addition, the strength reduction of the test specimens was increased during firing with an increase in the opening size; strengthening with ferrocement decreased this reduction, deflection, and change in crack pattern shape and improved beam ductility. Carbon nanotubes improve the efficiency of retrofitting by ferrocement compared to the use of steel wire mesh in the ferrocement mix.

  24. LINEAR OPTIMIZATION OF SOIL MIXES IN THE DESIGN OF VERTICAL CUT-OFF WALLS Download Article

    Jonathan Dungca, Joenel Galupino, Charlle Sy and Anthony Shun Fung Chiu
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (159-165)
    • No of Download = 369

    Abstract

    close

    In order to prevent the contamination of surrounding groundwater in a landfill, cut-off walls were recommended. Cut-off walls are walls utilized when there is a need to restrict horizontal movement of liquids. Currently, the factors in designing cut-off walls are effective permeability and relatively inexpensive materials in containing contaminants. It was suggested to provide a mix of 96% soil and 4% bentonite in the design of cut-off walls, but bentonite is relatively expensive, thus the viability of fly ash as a replacement for bentonite was considered. Soil mixtures were proposed and rigorous laboratory tests were performed to determine the individual properties. Tests such as specific gravity tests, Atterberg limit tests (liquid limit, plastic limit, and plasticity index), emax and emin test/relative density tests, particle size analyses, microscopic characterizations, elemental composition tests and permeability tests were performed to garner data and were utilized for the model. A linear optimization model was generated to achieve the least cost with the minimum required permeability. The minimum permeability requirement for the cut-off wall was achieved by providing various mixtures for soil-bentonite-fly ash.

  25. BASIC BEHAVIOUR OF NATURAL BANANA STEM FIBER REINFORCED CONCRETE UNDER UNIAXIAL AND BIAXIAL TENSILE STRESS Download Article

    Ellen Joan Kumaat, Mielke R.I.A.J Mondoringin and H. Manalip
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (166-175)
    • No of Download = 421

    Abstract

    close

    In order to study the basic behavior of natural banana stem fiber reinforced concrete, three type of tensile strength test namely split tensile strength, flexural strength and biaxial fatigue flexure strength were conducted. Comparison of these three type of tensile strength, their crack pattern and the way they fails were be analyzed and discussed. Results showed that the flexural strength value of the two type of biaxial tests are higher than the uniaxial test result( ASTM C-1550 have 47.046 % higher than ASTM C-78 and 37.871 % higher than ASTM C-496). The value of tensile strength as measured by ASTM C-1550-02 is slightly higher than the value of the flexural tensile strength as measured by the biaxial flexure test (21.062%). The lines of the crack pattern do not show clear macro fracture cracks before reaching the peak load. As observed, there are two peak load values found were the one occurred at the first cracked, after that the load stress curve decrease for a while and after a few seconds the load increase again to a value smaller than the first peak load value.This is because at the time of the first cracking in three axes symmetry, the load that can be maintained by the concrete specimen had reached its maximum but after that the load increase again because the stress has been transferred to the fiber, so the stress rises again until the fiber break off. This indicates that the fiber plays an important role in holding and redistributed the tensile load.

  26. CHARACTERISATION OF THE UNDRAINED SHEAR STRENGTH OF EXPANSIVE CLAYS AT HIGH INITIAL WATER CONTENT USING INTRINSIC CONCEPT Download Article

    Farzad Habibbeygi and Hamid Nikraz
    • Article Type: Research Article
    • View Abstract
    • Pages (176-182)
    • No of Download = 478

    Abstract

    close

    Twenty-four direct shear tests were conducted on remolded/reconstituted specimens to study the effect of initial water content on the undrained shear strength of expansive clays. The laboratory tests illustrate that the shear behavior of the studied clayey soil is dependent on both the confining pressure and the initial water content at which the specimen was prepared. In fact, the undrained shear strength decreases with increasing initial water content. Similarly to the compression behavior, the intrinsic concept can also be used to predict the undrained shear strength of the studied soil. Additionally, the relationship between the void index, which is a normalized invariant of void ratio, and the undrained shear strength can be defined uniquely by a straight line. The experimental results also show that the normalized undrained shear strength, which is defined as the ratio of the peak undrained shear strength to the normal stress, varies with the initial water content from 0.25 to 0.50. Moreover, a decreasing trend is found for the range of pre-consolidation stress between 50 and 400 kPa.