Articles

  1. EVALUATION OF IMBIBITION PROCESS IN POROUS MEDIA BY INVADED PERCOLATION PROBABILITY Download Article

    Junichiro Takeuchi and Masayuki Fujihara
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1-7)
    • No of Download = 431

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    The water retention capacity of soil is determined by the texture and structure of the soil and the physical properties of the grain surface. Specifically, it is influenced by various factors such as size and shape of pore, connectivity to neighboring pores, and the contact angle of grains in a bottom-up manner. The water retention curve, a relationship between retained water in soil and matric potential, can exhibit different shapes depending on such factors. However, in our previous numerical experiments with a pore-network model, we suggested that the various water retention curves can be integrated into an almost identical curve regardless of different pore-size distributions when variously saturated porous media are evaluated by an evaluation index derived from the percolation theory. The evaluation method is called invaded percolation probability here, and it was extended from the percolation probability, which evaluates the degree of network connectivity. In this study, more detailed numerical experiments for imbibition process were conducted and the applicability of the invaded percolation probability was investigated. Our results indicated that a common curve of the invaded percolation probability was obtained if pores in the pore-network did not have any correlation with their neighboring pores. In a case where the pore-network had some spatial structure, we found that a different curve of the invaded percolation probability was obtained, and this evaluation method was applicable unless the structure was disturbed.

  2. RESIDENTIAL CUSTOMER DEMAND RESPONSE PROGRAM IN MICROGRID SYSTEM: A SURVEY LITERATURE Download Article

    Ignatius Rendroyoko and Ngapuli Irmea Sinisuka
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (8-14)
    • No of Download = 454

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    Electricity supply in microgrid power systems often faces limited power supply constraints. Besides adding more power generation and organizing power plants scheduling, efforts to balance supply and power requirements in the power system can be made by regulating the amount of electrical load. Demandside management (DSM) program can be done to control energy consumption and limit peak loads. The demand response (DR), as one of the DSM program, can be implemented to regulate the electric load to balance supply and demand. Residential customers demand response is a program that aims to reduce peak load by shifting or shedding residential electricity loads. This load reduction method has been used to control the peak load to be able to adjust to power supply conditions. This paper presents a literature survey of articles that address the application of DR for residential customers. The study uses the assumption that majority of electrical loads in microgrid systems are residential customers. It is expected that a balance between supply and demand for electricity in the power system can be achieved through demand response activities for residential customers. Here, a review of effective demand response methods is performed to precisely and accurately regulate the use of electricity by residential customers to limit peak load and control electrical energy consumption. In the end, this paper also discusses the possible implementation of demand response method for residential customers on a microgrid system.

  3. ASSESSMENT ON THE AEROSOLS VARIATION DURING THE INTENSE HAZE EVENT OF JUNE 2013 OVER MALAYSIA BY UTILIZING THE SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING AND GROUND-BASED MEASUREMENT Download Article

    Nur Atiqah Aainaa Abd Latiff and Takashi Machimura
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (15-20)
    • No of Download = 404

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    The rapid occurrence of forest fires in Southeast Asia and associated biomass burning has contributed obviously to the problem of trans-boundary haze and the dispersion of pollutants in the region. Atmospheric pollutants, such as particulate matter in the atmosphere, have received extensive attention, mainly because of their adverse effect on people’s health. In 2013, Malaysia experienced intense haze episodes with a high concentration of aerosols were recorded and degrading the local air quality and reduce the visibility. This paper aim is to analyze the spatiotemporal variation of aerosols concentration during intense haze event in 2013 over Malaysia by using remote sensing data and ground-based measurement. The air quality data across Malaysia was assessed based on PM10 concentration which provided by Malaysia Department of Environment (MDOE) and the spatial view of aerosols optical depth (AOD) data from satellites (Terra Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The environmental parameters including temperature, rainfall, and wind speed were obtained from NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) while an additional information about the occurrence of active fires in surrounding region was retrieved from MODIS Active Fire Data was retrieved from NASA/LANCE – FIRMS. In June 2013, the PM10 value was recorded high in few stations over the Peninsular Malaysia with the highest PM10 was recorded in the Bukit Rambai Station from 21st until 23rd of June with more than 400 μg/mᶟ. Low wind speed and low mixing depth, together with the absence of rainfall persisted during this hazy condition. The PM10 was began cleared with the increase of wind speed starting 26th of June with the rainfall also contributed to disperse the haze from the atmosphere. The sources and destination of aerosols are identified via the HYSPLT trajectory model, revealing that aerosols during June 2013 are mainly originated from the west and southwest area (Sumatera, Indonesia).

  4. A STUDY OF PUBLIC OPINION ON GREEN SPACES USING DATA FROM FREE-TEXT DESCRIPTIVE RESPONSES - A CASE STUDY OF REGIONAL CITY IN JAPAN - Download Article

    Shinya Tsukada and Tetsuo Morita
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (21-25)
    • No of Download = 403

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    The present study analyzed public opinion data from free-text descriptive responses obtained by administering a questionnaire on green spaces to local residents. Maebashi City, the capital city of Gunma Prefecture, was selected as the subject for the study. Maebashi is a standard-sized city in Japan, thus the opinions of its residents can be analyzed and compared to other standard-sized cities. The present study adopted a text mining method for analysis. Text mining can discover the characteristics of words and examine the relationships between words in a large amount of text data objectively and quickly. By exploring the residents’ thoughts on green spaces using the data from their free-text descriptive responses, the present study extracted problems with existing green spaces from the viewpoint of the public. Focusing on the words obtained from the free opinion, "park (1st)", "green (2nd)", "street tree (3rd)" which are the green space symbols in Maebashi city.

  5. A STUDY ON SELECTION FACTORS OF RESIDENCE FOCUSING ON PERSONAL ATTRIBUTES AND DISTRICT CHARACTERISTICS - A CASE STUDY OF REGIONAL CITY IN JAPAN - Download Article

    Tetsuo Morita, Katsumi Matsumoto and Shinya Tsukada
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (26-31)
    • No of Download = 302

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    In Maebashi City, Gunma Prefecture, Japan like other regional cities, motorization is progressing year by year. Dependence on automobiles has become a major cause of urban sprawl. In Maebashi City, the DID (Densely Inhabited District) is expanding year by year, but the population density is decreasing. In this study, in solving these various problems of local cities, we will consider "Compact City" as one future image of local cities and consider the consolidation of cities. The purpose of this study is three as shown below. The first aim is to analyze the factors of resident consciousness to live in Maebashi City. The second aim is to analyze the reasons for settlement by resident and to clarify the settlement factors. The third aim is to analyze the factors that define the awareness of residence selection by migrant-oriented persons. Focusing on personal attributes and district characteristics, we have grasped the factors of selecting residence in the regional city.

  6. COST MINIMIZATION OF RAW WATER SOURCE BY INTEGRATED WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS (A CASE STUDY FOR BANDUNG, INDONESIA) Download Article

    E. Afiatun, S. Notodarmojo, A.J. Effendi and K.A. Sidarto
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (32-39)
    • No of Download = 380

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    Due to the population growth, the scarcity of raw water presents a challenging problem for the establishment of an effective urban water supply system. In this research, we address the scarcity of water source for a highly populated city, like Bandung, and then minimize the cost associated with the development of effective urban water supply systems. We apply the concept of Integrated Water Supply System (IWSS), a concept that utilizes the treated wastewater as an alternative source of water. This concept will be implemented for the city of Bandung, Indonesia as a case of study. The cost minimization of the raw water supply system is carried out by using the superstructure approach. This optimization of the IWSS includes raw water sources and recycled wastewater. For the proposed scenario, we build a mathematical model that will be used for the optimization of IWSS. This optimization problem is solved using the CONNOPT3 method of GAMS software. The results of this study show that the proposed new IWSS results in less cost, but higher transmitted water, than the existing system (non-IWSS) because, in the new system, the water supply is allowed to flow into the existing Water Treatment Plan (WTP). Factors affecting the cost are length and diameter of the raw water transmission pipeline, the elevation of water resources and water treatment plants, the use of a coagulant, and the use of electricity in the transmission system and the water treatment plant.

  7. EVALUATION OF HEAVING RESISTANCE FOR DEEP SHAFT USING NODULAR DIAPHRAGM WALL Download Article

    Koji Watanabe, Akira Mitsumori, Hidetoshi Nishioka and Masayuki Koda
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (40-45)
    • No of Download = 334

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    In recent years, an increasing number of plans in Japan have been proposed for large-scale railway structures to be built deep underground. To construct a large-scale railway structure, it is necessary to construct vertical shafts that serve as the starting and ending point for the shield machine during the construction as well as the air vents once it goes into operation. In such situations, it is expected that there will be an increase in the cases where the vertical shafts will be built to reach deep underground. If typical diaphragm walls were used to construct these deep shafts, the embedment depth of the diaphragm walls would have to be made substantially significant in order to control the heaving. Heaving as stated here is a phenomenon in which pressurized water contained in the permeable layer below the impermeable layer close to the bottom of the excavated ground breaks through the impermeable layer owing to the upward force of the water pressure during the excavation process, which then causes the vertical shaft to lose its stability. Using modular diaphragm walls that have a nodular part on the diaphragm walls of the deep shaft could be relied upon for the purpose of supporting the embedment depth of the diaphragm walls. In this research, the influence the nodular part resistivity was examined in resisting heaving when nodular diaphragm walls are used for the deep shaft. The experiments at gravitational and centrifuge acceleration fields were conducted, and their effectiveness was confirmed.

  8. THE UNDRAINED SHEAR STRENGTH OF SOFT CLAY REINFORCED WITH GROUP ENCAPSULATED LIME BOTTOM ASH COLUMNS Download Article

    Muzamir Hasan, Wan Nursyafiqah Wan Jusoh, Wong Suk Chee and Masayuki Hyodo
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (46-50)
    • No of Download = 335

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    This research was aimed to investigate the role of group encapsulated lime bottom ash columns in improving the shear strength by using laboratory scale model. Kaolin was being used as soil sample and lime bottom ash as the reinforced columns. The reinforced kaolin samples were tested by using Unconfined Compression Test (UCT). A total 7 batches of kaolin sample had been tested and each batch consist of 3 specimens represent sample without lime bottom ash column, partially penetration and full penetration for group lime bottom ash columns. The specimen used was 50 mm in diameter and 100 mm in height. The height of the group columns was 60 mm, 80 mm and 100 mm with 10 mm and 16 mm column diameter. The group encapsulated lime bottom ash columns was installed in the triangular pattern, as it was much easier to maintain the location of installed columns and the spacing in between the columns. The improvement of shear strength of group encapsulated lime bottom ash columns with area replacement ratio of 12.00 % (10 mm column diameter) and 30.72 % (16 mm column diameter) was 29.00 %, 44.17 %, 29.75 % and 1.00 %, 3.92 %, 7.33 % at sample penetration ratio, Hc/Hs of 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 respectively. It can be concluded that the shear strength of soft clay could be improved by the installation of group encapsulated lime bottom ash columns. However, the improvement of shear strength of 10 mm group encapsulated lime bottom ash columns was increased more significant compared to 16 mm group encapsulated lime bottom ash columns.

  9. ESTIMATION OF INITIAL VOID RATIO OF CONSOLIDATED CLAY BASED ON ONE-DIMENSIONAL CONSOLIDATION THEORY Download Article

    Yuko Ishida, Ayaka Oya, Weerakaset Suanpaga, Chalemnchai Trakulphudphong, Chaweewan Denpaiboon, Masamitsu Fujimoto and Ryoichi Fukagawa
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (51-56)
    • No of Download = 339

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    Many stupas located within the sacred historical site of Ayutthaya, Thailand are inclined. It is important to understand their ground conditions and causes of inclination in order to design appropriate conservation countermeasures for these precious cultural assets. Soil investigations were conducted at four points around the inclined stupa of Wat Krasai, located outside the World Heritage Site ”Historic City of Ayutthaya” in 2013 and 2016. Three key soil layers appear to be responsible for the inclination of this stupa: the second soft clay layer, the third loose silty sand layer, and the fourth hard clay layer. The inclination of this stupa increased as the thickness of the second soft clay layer. Thus, we assumed that the cause of stupa inclination and disproportionate settlement of the stupa was only the second soft clay layer. The amount of settlement and the initial void ratio of this second layer were estimated using the consolidation calculation formula based on Terzaghi's one-dimensional consolidation theory. The results of this study indicate that the amount of settlement is not exactly proportional to the thickness of the second soft clay layer, or that the void ratio is inhomogeneous in the layer. The calculation is conducted in four directions, north, south, east, and west, and the maximum settlement and the initial void ratio of the second soft clay layer are estimated at approximately 6.9 m and between 1.46 and 2.48 at the north side of the stupa, respectively.

  10. DISPLACEMENT OF DIAPHRAGM WALL FOR VERY DEEP BASEMENT EXCAVATION IN SOFT BANGKOK CLAY Download Article

    Wanchai Teparaksa and Jirat Teparaksa
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (57-62)
    • No of Download = 374

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    Rosewood Hotel Project consists of 6 basements by using a diaphragm wall as a soil protection system. Elevations of Rosewood Hotel basements are -2.9, -6.5 -9.25, -11.95, -14.65 and -18.9 m. depth from the ground surface. Final excavation depth of this project is -24.2 m. from the ground surface which is area intended for a lift pit. Due to the fact that the final depth of this project is very deep, the effect of water pressure was also considered. Finite Element Method (FEM) was carried out to predict behavior and displacement of the diaphragm wall which is used as a soil protection system. In addition, the Mohr-Coulomb soil modeling was used as failure criteria of the FEM analysis. Measured lateral movement of the diaphragm wall by means of inclinometer at all stages of construction was compared with analytical results from FEM prediction. The predicted diaphragm wall displacement by FEM agrees well with field performance.

  11. THE ABILITY OF WALL OPENINGS TO REDUCE FLOOD INDUCED FORCES ON RESIDENTIAL BUILDING Download Article

    Nur Aqilah Ahmad Faisal, Abdul Naser Abdul Ghani and Nuzaihan Aras Agus Salim
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (63-69)
    • No of Download = 431

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    Flood-induced forces could threaten the stability of residential building during a flooding event. The building will have to face the hydrodynamic pressures and sometimes impact load from the debris-carrying floods. A study on the behavior of flood water movement through the external wall was carried out to identify the various wall opening dimensions and its ability to minimize the flood water forces on buildings. Two types of experiments were carried out. First, a water flow table was used to visualize the water pattern diffusion. Next, flood tunnel was used to measure water velocity reduction response of the various walls. The wall opening configurations were based on the common types of wall opening found in Malaysia. Generally, the results show that walls with bigger openings could withstand the water forces better. This is indicated by the smaller velocity reduction and diffusion when the flowing water passes through the wall. However, the level of the opening from the ground could change the overall performance of the various opening sizes as shown by some of the models. Therefore, further studies should be carried out to determine suitable dimensional characteristics and level of the wall openings from the ground. This could produce an optimum impact reduction wall design for a residential building in the flood-prone area.

  12. PHOTOELECTROCATALYTIC CONVERSION OF CO2 INTO VALUE-ADDED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING CU2O PHOTOCATHODE Download Article

    Pattranit Thongthep and Chatchai Ponchio
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (70-75)
    • No of Download = 440

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    The global warming from CO2 emission effect and finding renewable energy are two major issues in today’s environmental and energy problems. The conversion of CO2 into value-added chemicals to achieve an energy-saving and low-carbon economy is needed to be developed. Photoelectrocatalytic technology is one of the most alternative ways to reduce CO2 under the advantage of high efficiency and inexpensive resembles the artificial photosynthesis process. This research focuses on photo electrocatalytic reducing CO2 solution into organic compounds at a Cu2O photocathode. The Cu2O electrode fabrication was developed by electrochemical deposition method to enhance the catalytic activity of reduction reaction under visible light irradiation. The effects of light intensity, apply potential, pH and catalytic mechanism parameters were studied to enhance the CO2 conversion to organic compounds efficiency. Carbonyl and methanol compounds were produced at the applied potential of 0.2 V and -0.4 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), respectively with the suitable pH in a solution of carbonate under visible light irradiation. These results illustrate that an applying potential and pH adjustment are the key factors of organic compounds production. This developed photoelectrocatalytic cell shows that the interesting method for reducing CO2 from air pollutant and also producing value-added chemicals for alternative energy supplies.

  13. IMPROVEMENT THE BIVO4 PHOTOANODE FABRICATED FOR WATER OXIDATION BY ELECTRODEPOSITION TECHNIQUE Download Article

    Nuanlaor Kiama and Chatchai Ponchio
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (76-81)
    • No of Download = 399

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    Photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) technique for water oxidation technologies could become important components in the renewable energy sector. BiVO4 has been receiving attention for applications in PEC cell for O2 evolution with high photoelectrocatalytic activity and the advantage of visible radiation absorption. The simple and high-efficiency BiVO4 thin film fabrication for large scale is essential for scaling up to the industrial application. This research describes the BiVO4 thin films fabrication on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) by electrodeposition technique as simple, fast and suitable for scaling up of electrode preparation. Cyclic voltammetry deposition was developed by studying the effect of potential range, scan rate, number of scan, temperature, and pH of the solution to enhance the photoelectrocatalytic activity of water oxidation under visible light irradiation. The fabricated FTO/BiVO4 thin films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The developed FTO/BiVO4 present the photocatalytic activities for water oxidation improvement more than 10 times when compared with the previous spin coating techniques. Therefore, this developing method shows that the high efficiency, fast, simple and suitable for scaling up able to approach for water oxidation in the industrial application.

  14. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SOIL CEMENT BASE MIXED WITH FLY ASH – BASED GEOPOLYMER Download Article

    Charoenchai Ridtirud, Somporn Leekongbub and Prinya Chindaprasirt
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (82-88)
    • No of Download = 381

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    At present, the improvement of compressive strength of soil using the Portland cement is widely used for roads and embankments, however, it has an enormous impact on the environment. Geopolymer cement is a material that can replace Portland cement and has less impact on the environment. Therefore, this research aims to study lateritic soil improvement by using Fly ash-based geopolymer materials. Percentage of fly ash was 1.5, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 20 % by weight. Specimens were prepared by the method of modified Proctor compaction test. Curing was done at 40oC for 24 hours and immerse in water for 2 hours before the tests. Unconfined compressive strength tests at 7, 14 and 28 days were performed. The results showed that the 5% fly ash by weight and NaOH/Na2SiO3 ratio of 1/1 was leading to the improvement of compressive strength above 17.5 ksc which is higher than the standard No. DH-S. 204/2533 - Soil cement base.

  15. STRACTURAL SIMULATION ON AN OPEN-WING-TYPE GROUND ANCHOR Download Article

    Kota Kono, Akihisa Nakahashi, Dong Daicho, Nobuo Fukushima and Ryoichi Fukagawa
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (89-94)
    • No of Download = 420

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    The anchoring method involves connecting a structure or a slope with the anchorage zone by using the frictional force between the grouting material and the surrounding ground to stabilize the structure or slope. However, over a long period of time said friction from traditional anchoring methods has been known to decrease, resulting in decreased anchor pullout resistance and ultimately, in anchor pull out. An open-wing type (OW) anchor method developed by our research group is a new type of earth anchor method, in which we use open wings for pullout resistance. Hence, this method can solve problems associated with existing methods. This study suggests an optimum structure for the parts that open in the OW anchor using a numerical analysis, ANSYS (FEM). Three types of 3D analytical models – rotation axis type, bent steel sheet type, and impaction type – are used. The analysis results show the optimum structure to be the impaction type structure, and simulations show that with a base metal yield strength safety factor of 1.5, an OW anchor could generate approximately 4250 N of extreme pullout resistance.

  16. A COMPREHENSIVE METHOD OF EROSION RESISTANCE AND GROWTH PROMOTION FOR PISHA SANDSTONE Download Article

    Zhishui Liang, Zhiren Wu, Caiqian Yang, Mohammad Noori, Xiangyang Wu, Hanbin Ge, Kentaro Iwashita, Wenyi Yao and Peiqing Xiao
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (95-101)
    • No of Download = 403

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    Pisha sandstone is a special type of soft rock that is severely eroded by wind, rainfall, and gravitational force. The surface of the area in the region consisting of this sandstone has been degraded as a result of excessive human activities, and the vegetation cover in this area is extremely low. In order to develop new methods to control further erosion and mitigate the adverse impacts of landslides, the material components, nutrient contents and the shear strength of Pisha sandstone were studied and field experiments via utilizing a new comprehensive method based on a hydrophilic polyurethane (W-OH) was carried out. The results revealed that in Pisha sandstone the main minerals are quartz, feldspar, plagioclase, montmorillonite, illite, and kaolinite. The montmorillonite was found to be the main cementitious material, however, is easy to expand when meets water. The research also showed that the nutrient content is low, and the organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total potassium and available phosphorus corresponds to the sixth-level, the nitrogen content corresponds to the fifth-level and the available potassium corresponds to the forth-level, according to the six-level classification of the soil nutrient content grading table. In the field experiment, vegetation coverage rate in the treated area increased to more than 95% after 4 months, and shallow trenches literally disappeared. The amount of sediment erosion was reduced by more than 90%, indicating that the effect of erosion prevention and promoting vegetation growth is significant. A demonstration project of 0.2 km2 was carried out in Odors in 2015 by this method which has resulted in promising outcomes, and the method has been widely accepted by the local community and soil conservation bureau.

  17. STUDY ON OUTDOOR THERMAL ENVIRONMENT OF CAMPUS BASED ON GIS Download Article

    Minxue Zheng, Shanwei Li and Hongxiao Liu
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (102-106)
    • No of Download = 378

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    In recent years, the campus population and the buildings of Jiangsu University have increased and the pattern of the micro-city has preliminarily formed. The data of the outdoor thermal environment of campus-based on Geographic Information System (GIS) has found that the average temperature difference of outdoor temperature in space distribution in Jiangsu University is about 1℃. Five different underlying surfaces have a great influence on the outdoor thermal environment of the campus, and the daily variation of temperature showed an inverted "V" single peak curve. The daily variation of temperature on the concrete road (direct sunlight) is approximately 4℃ above that of the grassland at the time of 14:00. The temperature of the concrete road (direct sunlight) is higher than that of the concrete road (shadows), and the temperature difference between them is about 1℃. At the same time, five suggestions have been proposed for the improvement of the outdoor thermal environment in Jiangsu University according to the results.

  18. THE UTILIZATION OF WATER FOOTPRINT TO ENHANCE THE WATER SAVING AWARENESS: CASE STUDY OF A CERAMIC PRODUCT Download Article

    Karin Kandananond
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (107-112)
    • No of Download = 414

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    One of the methods to increase the water saving awareness is the water footprint which is based on the calculation of water usage incurred during the whole life cycle of a product. The case study in this research is the water footprint computation of a ceramic product, a jug. The life cycle of a ceramic jug was studied by focusing on the stage of cradle to gate, resource extraction and manufacturing. The calculation of water footprint is based on the ISO 14046: 2014 guidelines. Another objective of this research is to verify that the water footprint can be utilized effectively as a tool to enhance the awareness and the perception of the ceramic business related personnel towards the water saving issue. According to the research results, the paired t-test statistics were utilized to test the difference in the awareness level before and after introducing the water footprint concept to the business owners. The results indicate that the awareness is significantly built up after the application of water footprint education. This will lead to the sustainable use of water in the ceramic business.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF SIMULATION MODEL FOR ESTIMATING GAS EMISSIONS FROM EQUIPMENT IN RAILWAY CONSTRUCTION PROCESSES Download Article

    Tawat Jewbunchu and Vachara Peansupap
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (113-120)
    • No of Download = 398

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    The railway construction utilizes several pieces of heavy equipment resulting in exhaust emissions such as pollution and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). The release of emissions can affect the environment and human health. Although many previous studies have attempted to approximately estimate the number of emissions, they did not consider the detailed processes of construction. The simulation model can be applied to improve this limitation and provides the ability to allocate resources and optimize the construction process. In addition, it can help to analyze alternative approaches to reduce emissions. This paper presents the development of simulation model to analyze the number of exhaust emissions from the equipment used in railway construction. It compares the number of exhaust emissions from the situation in the railway construction process, which will demonstrate the effects on the relationship between the number of exhaust emissions and the construction approach. As a result, this research provides an alternative method to manage exhaust emissions from the railway construction process and resource management.

  20. EFFECT OF SODIUM HYDROXIDE CONCENTRATION AND SODIUM SILICATE TO SODIUM HYDROXIDE RATIO ON PROPERTIES OF CALCINED KAOLIN-WHITE PORTLANDCEMENT GEOPOLYMER Download Article

    Saengsuree Pangdaeng, Vanchai Sata and Prinya Chindaprasirt
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (121-128)
    • No of Download = 290

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    This study presents the effects of sodium hydroxide concentration (NH) and the sodium silicate tosodium hydroxide ratio (NS/NH) on the mechanical properties and microstructure of geopolymer pastes prepared from calcined kaolin (CK) and white Portland cement (WPC). Different curing conditions viz., ambient curing, temperature curing, and moist curing were used. The results indicated the increasing NH concentration and NS/NH ratio increased the compressive strength of CK-WPC geopolymers and gave the highest compressive strength at NH concentration of 15 molar and NS/NH ratio of 1.0. Furthermore, the use of 50% WPC increased the compressive strength of geopolymer paste. The samples with ambient temperature curing showed high early compressive strength equal to that with temperature curing. For moist curing, the compressive strengths of WPC samples at the later age were continuously developed and were higher than those with ambient and temperature curings. The microstructures of geopolymer paste were tested using SEMimages and pattern of XRD (X-ray diffractometer) which showed the denser paste and higher calcium compound in the CK-WPC samples than those in CK samples.

  21. FLEXURAL REINFORCED CONCRETE MEMBERS WITH MINIMUM REINFORCEMENT UNDER LOW-VELOCITY IMPACT LOAD Download Article

    Warakorn Tantrapongsaton, Chayanon Hansapinyo, Piyapong Wongmatar and Taweep Chaisomphob
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (129-136)
    • No of Download = 364

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    Under various accidental situations, reinforced concrete members may be subjected to low-velocity impact loading. To avoid the sudden failure due to high strain rate, an amount of reinforcement is required. This paper presents the finite element analysis of simple reinforced concrete beams under low-velocity impact load. Falling weights of 250 and 500 kg were dropped at 1.2 m high on the beam midspan. Shear-to-bending capacity ratios varied from 0.9 to 11.3. Sixteen beams under different beam reinforcement ratios and with minimum static reinforcements were studied. The magnitude of the impact force, reactions, crack pattern, strains in beam reinforcements were examined. Shear crack, plastic strain in stirrups and shear plug damage were observed on the high flexural resistance specimens while the specimens with low flexural resistance completely failed in flexural failure. Finally, it could be concluded that the impact loading design requires more amount of reinforcement, especially transverse reinforcement to avoid the brittle shear failure. In addition, the longitudinal reinforcement should be increased to 2-4 times from the design in static load case to prevent sudden flexural failure of the structures.

  22. EXPERIMENT OF CHANNELIZATION DUE TO SEEPAGE EROSION Download Article

    Wandee Thaisiam, Peerapon Kaewnon1 and Adichai Pornprommin
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (137-142)
    • No of Download = 205

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    We have investigated channelization due to seepage erosion using two sizes of coarse sand (d50 = 0.86 and 0.56 mm), two chamber slopes (S = 0 and 3%) and three upstream water depths (H = 15, 17 and 19 cm). Water was fed at the far upstream end of a sand layer, and a small incipient channel was made at the center of the downstream scarp. Thus, groundwater flow converged into the central channel, promoted erosion and caused the development in both width and length. In the beginning, the retreat rates of channel heads were rapid but decreased after a while. A higher H induced a faster retreat and a larger size of the center channel. In the experiments with S = 0%, channel head bifurcation was always observed for d50 = 0.86 mm but not d50 = 0.56 mm. Thus, not only the characteristics of groundwater flow field soil properties but the sediment properties also affect the shapes of evolving channels. For S = 3%, however, bifurcation was only found in the experiment with d50 = 0.86 mm and H = 15 cm. It implies that H also controls bifurcation. In addition, new channels were initiated at the downstream scarp when S = 3%. An increase in the streamwise discharge due to a steeper slope may weaken the convergence of the groundwater flow into the center channel. Using the concept of network circularity, we can divide the channel development of our experiments into the initiation and extension phases.

  23. FLY-ASH-BASED GEOPOLYMER AS STABILIZER FOR SILTY SAND EMBANKMENT MATERIALS Download Article

    Jonathan R. Dungca and Edward Ephrem T. Codilla II
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (143-149)
    • No of Download = 422

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    Fly ash in the recent decades has become abundant resulting in the improper waste disposal. However, it is also known to be a precursor to the process of geopolymerization which is categorized under waste utilization. Geopolymer has become known for being on par with cement and other chemical stabilizers in terms of strength. It has been used in numerous studies focusing on concrete and on soil stabilization. This study proposes the use of fly-ash-based geopolymer as a stabilizer for silty sand embankment material wherein the process of synthesizing geopolymer is through the dry-mix method. The dry-mix method is another way of producing geopolymer, requiring the aluminosilicate precursors and alkali activators to be in its dry state, and adding water to the dry-mix would result in polymerization. The geopolymer was applied on Silty Sand to verify its reaction with the soil and to obtain the effective mix that would enable the soil to be stabilized for embankment use. The effectiveness of this method in soil stabilization was tested through the following tests, the CBR Test (ASTM D1833) and the UCS Test (ASTM D2166). Results have shown improvements of the geopolymer-stabilized soil in terms of the CBR index and the UCS value. The effective geopolymer concentration was found to be at 30% geopolymer concentration which produced the highest increase for the stabilized soil with a maximum CBR index of 34.32% and a maximum UCS value of 1349.74 kPa.

  24. ANALYSIS OF RAINFALL IN THE EASTERN THAILAND Download Article

    Wonlee Nounmusig
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (150-155)
    • No of Download = 420

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    Eastern Thailand needs for water increases daily due to population growth, economic developments, and urbanization. The main source of water in the region is mainly from the rain. Therefore, understanding of rainfall pattern in this region is required to support the planning of water management. In this study, the patterns of rainfall in eastern Thailand are analyzed by using statistical analysis. The data used from 15 rain gauge stations (the period in 1969-2008) of Thai Meteorological Department (TMD). The 40- year average of rainfall is found 1921mm.The region has abundant of rainfall during May to September due to Southwest monsoon, especially in windward location. The highest of rainfall and rain day found in August at Khlong Yai with exceeding 1000mm and exceed 25day, respectively. The results show yearly rainfall has been a tendency to decrease. The significant correlation between monthly rainfall and ENSO indices has the largest number in the transitional period (April, May, and October).

  25. IMPACT OF TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT ON SUGAR TRANSPORTATION MODAL SHIFT IN NORTHEASTERN THAILAND Download Article

    Paramet Luathep, Pongrid Klungboonkrong, Sittha Jaensirisak and Nattaphon Bhonsattayawong
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (156-163)
    • No of Download = 367

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    This study presents the current situation of the land transport of sugar products in Northeastern Thailand. Data collections, field surveys and individual interviews with sugar producers, transporters, warehouse operators, exporters and marketing teams were conducted. It was revealed that most sugar product is currently transported via the road transport because the rail transport system commonly suffers from delays, unreliability, and results in dirty, damaged and lost goods. In addition, there is no direct route for rail transport connecting warehouses near the seaports. Freight transport models were developed to estimate the modal shift of sugar transport between road and rail systems according to the transport infrastructure development plans. It was found that rail infrastructure development would potentially influence sugar product transport systems to shift freight transport from the road system to the rail system. Furthermore, the development of motorways will decrease the amount of sugar product transported by the rail system.

  26. ESTIMATION OF SOIL ERODIBILITY FACTOR IN RUSLE EQUATION FOR EUPHRATES RIVER WATERSHED USING GIS Download Article

    Ali Hussein Jaber Al Rammahi and Saleh Issa Khassaf
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (164-169)
    • No of Download = 418

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    Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) are the models to compute the soil erosion loss, to estimate the accurate value of soil erosion that must be predicted several factors of its model. The land cover surface of topsoil is the important effect on the estimation of soil erosion loss. In this paper, the Euphrates watershed river of Iraq country will be adopted. This watershed includes seven provinces Najaf, Karbala, Al-Qadisiyyah, Dhi Qar, Al Muthanna, Babylon and Basrah of Iraq. The objective of present study was estimated the erodibility factor K for the watershed area. The K factor map was derived from the database of the UN-FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2007). This map of erodibility factor was prepared by ArcMap 10.2 software. It was estimated that K factor values of this watershed of study area range from 0.02276 to 0.00928. The K factor is depended on the percentage of topsoil content as sand, silt, clay and organic carbon. The large value of K factor for the topsoil type is Jc symbol (39% sand, 40% silt and 21% clay), while the soil erodibility factor is low for Qa-topsoil kind (92% sand, 3% silt, 4% clay and 1% organic carbon) because the silt of topsoil content is low compared with different other kinds. The big area of topsoil watershed type is Yk-type (63% sand, 18% silt, and 19% clay), it has been occupied about 47.2% of the whole watershed area.

  27. A POST-LIQUEFACTION STUDY AFTER THE 2014 CHIANG RAI EARTHQUAKE IN THAILAND Download Article

    Sethapong Sethabouppha, SuriyahTongmunee, ChollachaiKamtawai and JittananKawilanan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (170-176)
    • No of Download = 279

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    A post-liquefaction study at a remote village was conducted after the event of the6.3 ML2014 Chiang Rai Earthquake in order to investigate the liquefaction condition and to compare liquefaction potential assessment methods for future use. Site surveying, aerial map study, standard penetration test were conducted and found that the subsoil at this site was easily liquefied because the village was lying within abandon river channels with very loose sand layer from the depth of approximately 1 to 6 meters underneath the cohesive soil layer of 1 - 1.5 meter thick at the surface. Four liquefaction potential assessment methods commonly used in the United States and in Japan: 1) modified Seed and Idriss' 1971 method; 2) Idriss and Boulanger (2014); 3) Iwasaki's 1990 method; and 4) Iwasaki's 1996 method were examined. The comparison demonstrates that Iwasaki' 1990 method yielded quite a different result from other three methods with the lowest values of a factor of safety. From this study, other three methods may be considered more favorable.

  28. LINEAMENT CONTROL ON SPRING CHARACTERISTICS AT CENTRAL WEST PROGO HILLS, INDONESIA Download Article

    T. Listyani R.A., Nana Sulaksana, Boy Yoseph CSSSA and Adjat Sudradjat and Agus Didit Haryanto
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (177-184)
    • No of Download = 324

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    The research area is located in the center of West Progo Hills, in Yogyakarta and Central Java Province, Indonesia. It is hard water area, but there are some springs appearing from Jonggrangan and Old Andesite Formations. These formations consist of hard, compacted Tertiary rocks which have dissected by some lineaments of structure or morphology. The lineaments may control springs characteristics, involve their appearance, frequency, and discharge. Field observation has been done to collect springs data. The small discharge has been measured by water gauge and stopwatch directly, while the big ones have been measured by river channeling measurements. On the other hands, lineaments were determined from Landsat image, SRTM and topographic map as well as from field. The result shows that lineaments in Old Andesite Formation develop in many directions followed by spring appearance, in a random location. Springs in Jonggrangan Formation mainly appear in the NE-SW direction in accordance with the azimuth of lineaments almost in SW-NE direction. The springs of both formations usually appear controlled by individual lineaments, indicated by coefficient correlation of 84% for the relationship between the distance of spring – lineament and the numbers of springs. The density of lineaments also controls of springs appearance (r = 62% for cross dots of fractures and r = 51% for length). The distance between lineament and spring to discharge rate of springs seems no influence indicated by r2 = 0.0495. It means that lineaments influence to spring occurrence in their density and distance characteristics.

  29. APPLICATION OF FINE QUAD-POLARIZATION RADARSAT-2 DATA AND SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINES TO CLASSIFY OFF-SEASON RICE PADDIES Download Article

    Chattichai Waisurasingha and Masamu Aniya
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (185-192)
    • No of Download = 331

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    In monsoon areas in Asia, most seasonal rice paddies are destroyed annually by flooding. To secure rice production, farmers in these areas grow off-season rice crops, which can be produced only with irrigated water. However, due to prevailing drought conditions, the cultivation of off-season rice crops cannot commence simultaneously. The availability of irrigated water is the critical factor for farmers in deciding when to begin off-season cultivation. To assess off-season rice production, a map of the cultivated area is required. Using multi-polarization/multi-temporal RADARSAT-2 data, this study aims to estimate and map the off-season rice paddies. The potential of using support vector machine classification to map off-season rice paddies with C-band SAR data was also established. Multi-temporal fine quad-polarization RADARSAT-2 data can be effectively used to estimate off-season rice cultivated areas.