Articles

  1. LIQUEFACTION SIMULATION FOR THE OSAKA GULF COAST USING THE LIQCA PROGRAM Download Article

    Tetsuya Okano, Keita Sugito and Ryoichi Fukagawa
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1-6)
    • No of Download = 523

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    A Nankai megathrust earthquake is expected to occur in the Kansai area within the next 30–40 years. According to the worst-case estimations by The Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion [1], the earthquake will cause economic losses of approximately 220 trillion yen, and 134,000 buildings will be damaged by liquefaction. To estimate future damage to the Osaka gulf coast, we conduct liquefaction simulations based on the LIQCA program developed by the research group at Kyoto University. The liquefiable layers are composed of relatively loose sand and the underground water level is high. The input earthquake motion is the L2 spectrum Ⅰ earthquake-resistant standard spectrum, according to the Design Standards for Railway Structures and Commentary [2]. We consider not only the increase of excess pore water pressure, but also its dissipation. The calculated effective stresses in the sand layers approached 0, after which the sand layers liquefied and unevenness occurred at the ground surface. We evaluated the damage due to liquefaction by calculating vertical displacements and unevenness of the ground surface. Countermeasures are proposed for the shallow sand layers to reduce future liquefaction damage.

  2. APPLICATION OF HEC-RAS AND ARC GIS FOR FLOODPLAIN MAPPING IN SEGAMAT TOWN, MALAYSIA Download Article

    Noor Suraya Romali, Zulkifli Yusop and Ahmad Zuhdi Ismail
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (7-12)
    • No of Download = 525

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    Nowadays, a risk-based flood mitigation concept has received more attention rather than the conventional flood control approach in reducing the impacts of flooding. With the intention to assist in the management of flood risk, flood modeling is useful in providing information on the flood extent and flood characteristics. This paper presents the application of HEC-RAS model to the development of floodplain maps for an urban area in Segamat town in Malaysia. The analysis used Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) as the main modeling input data. Five distribution models, namely Generalized Pareto, Generalized Extreme Value, Log-Pearson 3, Log-Normal (3P) and Weibull (3P) were tested in flood frequency analysis to calculate extreme flows with different return periods. Using Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test, the Generalized Pareto was found to be the best distribution for the Segamat River. The peak floods from frequency analysis for selected return periods were input into the HEC-RAS model to find the expected corresponding flood levels. Results obtained from HEC-RAS model were used in ArcGIS to prepare floodplain maps for different return periods. The results indicated that most of the inundated areas in the simulated 100 year return period were also affected by 2011 historical floods. For 100 years flood simulation, the inundated area was almost 5 times larger than the simulated 10 years’ flood.

  3. INSTALLATION CONSTRAINTS OF SUCTION ASSISTED FOUNDATIONS AND ANCHORS FOR OFFSHORE ENERGY DEVELOPMENT Download Article

    Kingsley Osezua Akeme, Alireza Rezagholilou and Meysam Banimahd
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (14-21)
    • No of Download = 470

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    The application of suction caissons has increased over the last two decades for offshore energy developments. Their installation challenges in different seabed types affect their execution process and load bearing capacity. Hence, the identification of these challenges and understanding their root causes are highly important. As such, this paper aims to review the recorded installation constraints due to different seabed conditions, discuss the various factors related to each of these constraints, and finally provide some suggestions to rectify each constraint and/or its relevant factors. To do so, the approach is to evaluate the geological (geophysical and geotechnical) conditions in multiple case studies and analyze the stability of suction caisson installation in different soil types. Results show that some factors such as plug heave contributes about 29% of the installation issues in both homogeneous clay soils and layered clay soils, soil piping and bottom resistance failure contribute about 16% and 10% respectively of the installation issues in both sand and layered sand soils, while high penetration resistance contributes about 23% of installation issues in layered soils. Also, the uncertainty of soil parameters or behaviour is a complementary factor which adds more complexities to the above-mentioned factors. Therefore, a good understanding of the seabed conditions and soil parameters before and during installation, as well as constant monitoring of the induced suction created during penetration with respect to the penetration depth is essential to mitigate the likely issues.

  4. IMPACT OF BLASTING AT TUNNEL FACE ON AN EXISTING ADJACENT TUNNEL Download Article

    V.K. Dang, D. Dias, N.A. Do and T.H. Vo
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (22-31)
    • No of Download = 594

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    Experimental and numerical research of the effect of blasting vibrations during tunneling on surrounding structures (rock mass, existing tunnels, buildings, etc.) was widely studied in recent years. However, the effect of blasting vibration from a new tunnel on an existing adjacent tunnel is still unclear. A few researches were carried out to study the relationship of the observed Peak Particle Velocity (PPV) on the lining areas along the existing tunnel direction, due to either the lack of in situ test data or the difficulty in conducting field tests, particularly for tunnels that are usually old and vulnerable after several decades of service. This paper introduced two dimensional and three dimensional numerical with field data investigations on the effect of tunnel face blasting on the surrounding rock mass and on an existing adjacent tunnel along the existing tunnel direction. The Croix-Rousse tunnel project in Lyon (France) was adopted as a case study. The derived results allow predicting the tunnel lining damage areas under the impact of blast loads.

  5. DOMESTIC WASTEWATER IN INDONESIA: CHALLENGE IN THE FUTURE RELATED TO NITROGEN CONTENT Download Article

    I Made Wahyu Wijaya and Eddy Setiadi Soedjono
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (32-41)
    • No of Download = 505

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    The option of reusing treated wastewater is becoming necessary for environment sustainability approach. In fact, wastewater effluent discharge regulations have become stricter leading to a better water quality. Municipal activities, agriculture, and rapid urbanization led to increased nitrogen and phosphorus discharge to the water system. More often, the effluents from municipal wastewater treatment plant failed to meet the national standard for effluent quality. Excess nutrients, mostly N and P is the main cause of eutrophication the which results in oxygen depletion, biodiversity reduction, fish kills, odor, and increased toxicity. Biological nutrient removal technologies are preferred and widely used to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from domestic wastewater and protect water quality. Chemical compositions in wastewater are highly diverse substances from simple compounds to complex polymers. Some wastewater samples were analyzed in this research. Conventional technology still retains the basic principle of complete nitrogen cycle through nitrification and denitrification. Anammox is a sustainable and cost-effective alternative to the basic method of nitrogen removal. Anammox has been identified as a new biotechnology for nitrogen reduction from wastewater. Compared to the common process of nitrogen removal, anammox can reduce 64% off aeration, 100% of an exogenous electron donor, and sludge production by 80-90%. Some benefits from anammox include high nitrogen removal rate, lower operational cost, and small space requirements. Anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) in Indonesia has been used commonly as communal wastewater treatment. Promoting anammox process in ABR potentially become an improvement for ABR in removing nitrogen better. This combination process still outlined for further research.

  6. MAT FOUNDATION DESIGN REFERENCE FOR METRO MANILA, PHILIPPINES Download Article

    Jonathan R. Dungca, Raynold Y. Pua, Raynold, Nelson Que, Anne Kristine M. Sangalang and Ayran Nicole Tan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (42-47)
    • No of Download = 386

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    To design mat foundations, there are certain values which are required for calculations and analyses, one of which would be the vertical modulus of subgrade reaction. It can be obtained through various deterministic tests such as the Plate Load Test. On the other hand, the study calculated this factor through the use of Standard Penetration Test (SPT) results by using four different methods. Comparative study and validation were also performed to confirm the most recommendable method to be used to compute for the soil spring constant, given the limitations of the SPT results, by correlation of this parameter to the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test results. Through this, the study considered and used the equation formulated by Bowles to calculate the vertical modulus of subgrade reaction. Then, a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software was utilized to generate maps of these values by the method of ordinary kriging. These maps presented the locations with the predominantly high and low values of the soil spring constant. They were also used to create a digitized reference of the values of the vertical modulus of subgrade reaction for the design of mat foundations for preliminary design through the use of Visual Basic Applications 2010.

  7. APPROPRIATE ATTENUATION MODEL FOR CHIANG MAI, THAILAND FROM FIELD MEASUREMENT TO MODEL EQUATION Download Article

    Tawatchai Tanchaisawat and Nutapong Hirano
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (48-52)
    • No of Download = 360

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    The earthquake occurs frequently in Thailand especially in upper northern part in past 5 years ago. Thailand has also many faults, especially upper northern. The upper northern part may risk by the earthquake. The earthquakes damage to buildings or people and these damages will depend on peak ground acceleration (PGA). Peak ground acceleration (PGA) is an important factor for analysis and design of a building or related structure on top. This study was analyzed earthquake attenuation model of group Next Generation Attenuation Models (NGA) and Stable Continental Region. The first group, the model was listed as Abrahamson and Silva (2008) and Idriss (2008). For the second group, the model was listed as Toro et al. (1997), Hwang and Huo (1997) and Dahle et al. (1995). Each model analysis was done by using the earthquake intensity that had happened according to the earthquake that detected from field measurement of 6.3 Richter scale on May 5th, 2014. The epicentre was in Mae Lao district, Chiang Rai province in northern of Thailand. The result of this research was summarized by mean of peak ground acceleration (PGA) between the attenuation models and the field data measurement by checking the accuracy of each model. It can be concluded that the attenuation model of Abrahamson and Silva (2008) give more accurate acceleration data compare to other models.

  8. REMOVAL OF RADIOACTIVE CESIUM FROM OCEAN SLUDGE BY THE BACTERIUM USING PURIFICATION SYSTEM OF CIRCULATION TYPE Download Article

    Tomoe Komoriya, Kyoichi Okamoto and Takashi Toyama
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (53-57)
    • No of Download = 381

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    The Fukushima nuclear accident of March 11, 2011, resulted in soil and water contamination by radioactive cesium. Radioactive cesium transported by rivers was also found in the ocean sludge of Tokyo Bay. Cesium adsorbed on the sludge is not easily removed. One of the authors has developed an ocean sludge decomposition system that employs micro-bubble circulation. The circulation of micro-bubbles creates an aerobic state that activates aerobic bacteria, facilitating decomposition and purification of the sludge. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the addition of bacteria to the micro-bubble circulation system on the efficient removal of radioactive cesium from ocean sludge. We tested the water purification effect of the system by adding bacteria directly. Results confirmed that the decomposition of the deposited sludge using our system facilitates the elution of the radioactive cesium. Any cesium eluted in the water can be remedied using existing technology such as zeolites. Purification efficiency seems to be greatest when additional bacteria are added directly to the process. With time, bacterial concentration doubles, and 76% of cesium in the liquid phase (dried sludge) and 51% of cesium in the solid phase (water) is removed.

  9. EFFECT OF CRUMB RUBBER AND NANO SILICA ON THE CREEP AND DRYING SHRINKAGE OF ROLLER COMPACTED CONCRETE PAVEMENT Download Article

    Musa Adamu, Bashar S Mohammed and Mohd Shahir Liew
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (58-65)
    • No of Download = 383

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    Roller compacted concrete (RCC) pavement is used mostly for heavy duty vehicle operations such as log sorting yards, intermodal yards for containers, parking areas for military vehicles and trucks and automobiles, and aircraft parking ramps. Therefore, it is subjected to long-term loading which can cause permanent deformation. Therefore in this study, the long-term creep and drying shrinkage of RCC pavement up to 1 year was studied. High volume fly ash (HVFA) RCC pavement was developed by replacing 50% cement with fly ash. A total of five RCC pavements were developed; one control mixture, two RCC pavement mixtures and two HVFA RCC pavement mixtures. The four mixtures were developed by replacing 10% fine aggregate with crumb rubber by volume and addition of 1% nano silica by weight of cementitious materials. The results showed that the creep and drying shrinkage of RCC pavement increases with time, and with the incorporation of crumb rubber and HVFA and decreases with the addition of nano-silica. The creep strain of RCC pavement mixtures can be predicted at any given time using their compressive strength and age of testing.

  10. STUDY OF PUMP AND RETENTION BASIN REQUIREMENT FOR SEMARANG-DEMAK COASTAL DIKE PLAN, CENTRAL JAVA Download Article

    Andojo Wurjanto, Julfikhsan Ahmad Mukhti and Hijir Della Wirasti
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (66-73)
    • No of Download = 360

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    Semarang city in East Java, Indonesia, is frequently inundated on its northern side due to coastal flooding which is mainly caused by land subsidence. A study by the government to prevent this coastal flooding was started in 2014 and resulting comprehensive solution that ultimately will make 8 km of Semarang coastal area protected by the coastal dike. This leaves the area behind the coastal dike as a polder and hydraulic analysis is critical to ensure the polder areas will not be flooded when extreme rainfall occurs in the area. This study analyses the pumping capacity and retention basin configurations based on the official watershed agency (BBWS Pemali Juana) by performing hydraulic simulations and the result shows that the current configuration is relatively minimalist compared to the solutions suggested to other urban areas in the world. Recommended pump and basin configurations with higher flood-draining performance are given in this study based on the past design experience from the capital city of Jakarta as well as similar cases from other urban areas.

  11. ANALYSIS OF SQUARE CONCRETE-FILLED COLD-FORMED STEEL TUBULAR COLUMNS UNDER AXIAL CYCLIC LOADING Download Article

    Chinnapat Buachart, Chayanon Hansapinyo and Nutchanok Ueatrongchit
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (74-80)
    • No of Download = 489

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    This research studied the behavior of the square concrete-filled cold-formed steel tube (CFST) columns under axial cyclic loading. A total of 9 specimens were tested. All tested specimens are 75×75 millimeter square tube section. The parameters varied in the test are the thickness of steel tube, the compressive strength of filled concrete, and specimen length. The values of tube thickness are 1.8 and 3 millimeters. The column lengths are 500 and 1000 millimeters. In-filled concrete compressive strengths are 0 (unfilled), 20 and 40 MPa, respectively. Then the experimental strengths were compared with the design strengths computed from various international design codes. Finally, the specimens were analyzed by finite element software. The analytical results showed fairly close agreement with experimental results in terms of buckling mode, load-deformation response, the tension capacity and the decreasing compression capacity under cyclic load.

  12. NONLINEAR STRUT–AND–TIE MODEL WITH BOND–SLIP EFFECT FOR ANALYSIS OF RC BEAM–COLUMN JOINTS UNDER LATERAL LOADING Download Article

    Rattapon Ketiyot, Chayanon Hansapinyo and Bhuddarak Charatpangoon
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (81-88)
    • No of Download = 491

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    This paper presents an application of nonlinear strut-and-tie model (NSTM) with bond-slip effect for analysis of reinforced concrete (RC) interior beam-column joints under lateral loading. The conventional STM is a calculation based on the force method exhibiting the internal forces in each component, it is unable to capture an inelastic response when RC beam-column joints undergo large displacement. Test results of three similar interior beam-column subassemblage frames with Grade400, Grade400s and Grade500 of longitudinal reinforcement bar, were used to verify the applicability of the NSTM, respectively. In the joint region, nonlinear links of concrete and steel bar with bond-slip effect were applied to simulate a load-displacement response. The results, such as maximum loading capacity, lateral load-story drift relation and failure mode, obtained from both NSTM models and laboratory experiments were compared. It was found that the results from the analyses using the NSTM with bondslip effect agreed well with the experimental results. Furthermore, the demand-to-capacity ratios of the nonlinear links, which represents the distribution of the internal force in the NSTMs’ joint region, exhibit the failure location and the failure mode that compatible with the experimental result. Hence, the proposed model is capable of predicting the strength of interior beam-column joint of RC frames under lateral loading.

  13. BEHAVIOURS OF RC DEEP BEAMS STRENGTHENED IN SHEAR USING HEMP FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES Download Article

    Sanyawit Siriluk, Qudeer Hussin, Winyu Rattanapitikorn and Amorn Pimanmas
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (89-94)
    • No of Download = 491

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    This paper presents an experimental study on externally bonded hemp fiber reinforced polymer composites reinforced concrete deep beams to investigate the efficiency of hemp fibers in shear strengthening. Reinforced Concrete (RC) deep beam is a beam with the depth comparable to the span length. There are several applications of RC deep beams, such as transfer girders in tall buildings, a wall of water tanks, and footings. Despite a number of research works on strengthening RC deep beams, a current literature review demonstrated no studies on the use Hemp fiber to increase the shear strength of RC deep beams. Hemp fibers are natural fibers which can be obtained from plants. Hemp fibers are externally applied to the beam’s surface using epoxy resin. A series of three-point loading tests were conducted on natural hemp fiber strengthened reinforced concrete deep beams. The research parameters included hemp fiber thickness and strengthening configuration, i.e. hemp fiber applied onto two or three sides (U shape). Test results indicated that hemp fiber reinforced polymer composite was capable of enhancing the ultimate load and deflection of RC deep beams. In general, the experimental results demonstrated a higher increase in the shear strength when the thickness of the hemp fiber was increased. Strengthening configuration also has a great impact on the strength and ductility. The U-shaped strengthening with hemp fiber applied onto the side and bottom faces of the beam was superior to strengthening on side faces only.

  14. HYPERBOLIC MODEL PARAMETERS OF PHILIPPINE COAL ASH Download Article

    Erica Elice Saloma Uy and Jonathan Rivera Dungca
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (95-102)
    • No of Download = 475

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    In the 2016 Annual Energy Sector accomplishment report of the Philippine’s Department of Energy, power generation in the Philippines relied on the coal-fired power plant at 46%. An increase of 19.47% was observed from 2003 to 2016. The increase in demand would result in an increase in production of waste material from the power plant namely, coal ash. Furthermore, the disposal of these waste materials can be an issue because it can cause a shortage in storage facilities. To address this, there is a need to study on the possibility of reusing these waste materials. A probable use of the waste material is by using it as a construction material for road embankments. In the Philippines some of these structures are constructed on areas exposed to seawater in order to address traffic congestion. This study proposes to use coal ash as the material for road embankment. Triaxial test under consolidated drained condition was performed considering the exposure to seawater. Three conditions were implemented namely, no exposure, immediate exposure and prolonged exposure. Based on the results, 100% fly ash had the highest strength. The hyperbolic model was employed to simulate the material’s stress-strain response. The hyperbolic model was chosen since it has the capability of predicting the load-displacement behavior of the waste material under monotonic loading. The Hyperbolic model prediction shows that the material can still handle higher stresses. With this, the ash mixtures tested has a potential to be used as a construction material for a road embankment.

  15. INTERACTION OF NONLINEAR NUMERICAL MODEL OF SFRC SLAB AND NONLINEAR NUMERICAL SUBSOIL MODEL Download Article

    Jana Vaskova and Radim Cajka
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (103-110)
    • No of Download = 463

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    Experimental measurements of the concrete slab in interaction with subsoil are compared with numerical analysis based on Finite Element Method FEM. Experimental measurements are conducted with using an experimental device constructed at the Faculty of Civil Engineering VSB – Technical University of Ostrava. In the article, several types of nonlinearities enter into FEM analysis. Subsoil-structure interaction requires an iterative solution procedure - and therefore structural nonlinearity. Material nonlinearity was used in the numerical model of the slab. This model also allows the creation and development of cracks in concrete - similar as during the experimental load test. Material nonlinearity was also used in the numerical model subsoil - to ensure of apposite subsoil behavior. The purpose of this paper is to compare resulting deformation of the slab with values observed during experimental loading test. It was concluded that the good agreement between the experimental results and numerical simulation was observed.

  16. GEOTECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF PILING TESTING IN PROBLEMATICAL SOILS OF WEST KAZAKHSTAN Download Article

    Askar Zhussupbekov, Ivan Morev, Abdulla Omarov, Karlygash Borgekova and Gyulnara Zhukenova
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (111-117)
    • No of Download = 439

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    Estimation of bearing capacity and settlement plays an essential role in designing pile foundations of buildings. This paper presents the results of pile static and dynamic loading tests taken place in the construction sites of Caspian Sea Port Prorva and Tengiz. The static loading tests (SLT) and static compression loading tests (SCLT) were carried out according to the Kazakhstan GOST and ASTM standards correspondingly. The dynamic loading tests (DLT) were performed by GOST, as well as by pile dynamic analyzer (PDA) in accordance with ASTM standards. According to the results of DLT of driven joint piles (with a cross-section of 40×40 cm, lengths of 25 m and 27 m) performed by PDA, the bearing capacity of the piles was 2143 kN. In the construction site of Prorva, the bearing capacities of driven joint piles according to the results of SCLT were 2067 kN and 2042 kN. In the construction site of Tengiz, the bearing capacities of driven piles tested by SLT were 1000 kN and 1605kN. These investigations are important for the understanding of soil-structure interaction, especially of driven piles with a cross-section of 40x40 cm and lengths of 12 and 16m in construction site Tengiz.

  17. WATER SCARCITY IN THE DEPOK AREA Download Article

    Tito Latif Indra and Firdaus Ali
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (118-123)
    • No of Download = 450

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    When the development of a city is very fast, the city can experience environmental imbalance if the needs of the population are not met, especially clean water facilities. Depok City is a city that has grown very fast, and only has a piped water channel to 20% of the community, so 80% of people depend on groundwater. This will cause a disaster in terms of water scarcity. Through the calculation method of water balance, analyzed based on the number and density of the population, the type and area of land use will result in the total water needs of the people of Depok city to be balanced by the water supply through the pipeline network of Depok City. According to the water balance of Depok city for 2010–2027, until 2017, Depok City has been experiencing depletion of water supply from PDAM Tirta Asasta, and will then experience increased supply in year 2022 because PDAM Tirta Asasta will increase its production capacity to be 2,285 L/sec with addition of supply from IPA Legong, Citayam, Duren Seribu, and Cinere up to a total of 3,475 L/sec. However, the condition of this supply will not last long, and will again revert to depletion in 2027, caused by the need for clean water in Depok City increasing without a simultaneous increase in the production capacity of clean water by PDAM Tirta Asasta.

  18. GROUNDWATER INVESTIGATION USING RESISTIVITY METHOD AND DRILLING FOR DROUGHT MITIGATION IN TULUNGAGUNG, INDONESIA Download Article

    Adi Susilo, Sunaryo and Fina Fitriah
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (124-131)
    • No of Download = 453

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    Research of the groundwater in Pakel, Bandung and Besuki Subdistricts, Tulungagung District has been implemented. The research area is located in the rice field area, previously an area of annual flooding inundation during the rainy season. This situation troubles the community and local government of Tulungagung District. During the dry season, the mud cracks, making it difficult as agricultural land. The research was done using Geoelectrical Resistivity Schlumberger configuration method. The measurement point is located in the three Subdistricts with a total of 19 measurement points. The study location is at 111.75988880 EL; -8.2264166670 SL to111.84541670 EL; 8.1309166660 SL or covers an area of 101 km2. The length of the track used is a maximum of 600 meters. Based on the results of the geoelectrical resistivity data, it was found two types of aquifers, which are open aquifers in depth ranging from 6 m to 21 m and a confined aquifer in depth ranging from 90 to 115 m. In addition to the geoelectrical information data, drilling was done at an accessible point by heavy equipment in the Gempolan Village, Pakel Subdistrict. At the drilling point, artesian wells were obtained at a depth of 108 meters and can rise to 2 meters above the soil surface. The discovery of artesian wells is then used by residents to meet the needs of clean water considering that in this area most wells are smell and iron contain.

  19. INTERPRETATION OF PILE INTEGRITY TEST RESULTS OBTAINED FROM MODEL CONCRETE PILES HAVING TWO DEFECT LOCATIONS Download Article

    Panu Promputthangkoon, Sommart Swasdi and Tavorn Kuasakul
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (132-138)
    • No of Download = 449

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    The most common query for piles is that whether their integrity is acceptable. Another problem that has been rarely questioned is that whether a minor defect under a major defect is properly detected. This study constructed model concrete piles having the dimensions of 0.15 by 0.15 by 5.00 m with two defects intentionally created at 2.50 and 3.50 m from the pile top. The first defect was created to have a constant β value of 40%; while the second defect was varied such that the β values were from 95, 90, 85, 80, 65, 50, 35, and 20%. A pile integrity testing equipment was used to detect those defects, and the results were compared to the actual ones created. Testing was conducted on the piles being in the air and under the ground in order to observe whether skin friction would affect the signals. For the first defect, it was found that the average measured β values for both defects are about 76% and 89% higher than those of the actual ones. This is an important factor that engineers should bear in mind when interpreting the signals from a report. For instance, a defect reported is probably less than what has happened to the pile. In the case of the second defect, the results revealed that if a β value is 89% and higher, the pile should be acceptable. However, if it is lower than 89%, other types of pile integrity testing should be carried out to clarify the result.

  20. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF LAND USE IN BUMIAJI SUBDISTRICT, BATU CITY, EAST JAVA, INDONESIA Download Article

    Agung Witjaksono, Surjono, Agus Suharyanto and Muhammad Bisri
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (139-144)
    • No of Download = 325

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    The Bumiaji area is an upstream river basin that has undergone land changes from an undeveloped to a developed area, which may cause a disturbance in the river basin. This research investigates the river basin using secondary data covering land use, land slope, rainfall, and soil types. The quality indicator of a river basin is measured from the quantity of surface runoff. The bigger the scale of the surface runoff is, the lower the quality of the river basin. This research aims to examine the effect of land use changes on the river basin condition, using surface runoff as the indicator. The result shows that the change of land use at Bumiaji affects the surface runoff coefficient and river discharge increment in the Bumiaji river basin. It is concluded that the runoff coefficient (C) increased in sub-river basins one to four, while it decreased in sub-river basin five.

  21. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LIQUID SMOKE PRODUCED FROM PALM KERNEL SHELLS PYROLYSIS AS A NATURAL PRESERVATIVE IN FISH BALLS Download Article

    Muhammad Faisal and Asri Gani
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (145-150)
    • No of Download = 475

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    This study investigated the utilization of liquid smoke as a natural preservative in fish balls without reducing their nutrition and aesthetic value. The liquid smoke used in this research was obtained through pyrolysis of palm kernel shells at temperatures of 340, 360, and 380°C. The resulting liquid smoke was then purified using a two-stage distillation process at a temperature of 200°C in order to remove unwanted compounds. This grade-1 liquid smoke was then used to preserve fish balls. The parameters assessed to monitor the fish balls’ preservation were total volatile bases (TVB), pH, and organoleptic test results. The results showed that the smallest TVB value of 12.66 mgN/100 g at 20 hours was obtained for fish balls preserved using liquid smoke pyrolysis at 380°C (3% concentration). The organoleptic test showed that 90% of respondents preferred the taste, aroma, and texture of the fish balls preserved using liquid smoke pyrolysis at a temperature of 340°C (2% concentration). The pH test showed that the fish balls preserved using liquid smoke possessed a pH above 6, meaning that they were in good condition.

  22. ADDITIONAL BEARING CAPACITY OF PILES DUE TO TIME DELAY OF INJECTION Download Article

    Abdul Hakam, M Sofian Asmirza and Heka P Andriani
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (151-157)
    • No of Download = 289

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    The use of long piles to support construction loads has been recognized for thousands of years. In the last century, it has been introduced the use of pressure for embedding pile foundations that is named injected piles. In field implementations, if the design depth of the piles is long enough then additional piles are required to be connected. It needs time delay to connect between the earlier embedded pile to the additional one. The time delay can be also caused by other things such as equipment problems, unwilling bad weather etc. Based on the experience of pile injection records, due to the time delay, there is a temporary increase in pile bearing capacity, so it takes more effort to continue pile penetrations until the specified depth. In this study, the effects of erection time delays on piles are investigated. This study is conducted using experimental injected-pile models at the laboratory. The initial depth of earlier piles prior to further injection is set the relatively same, while the time delays are varied. The injection loads for penetration are recorded as well as the depth of penetration. The results of the experiments in terms of variation of time delays and additional penetration loads show that there are 'jump loads' at the initial last depth due to time delay until a certain period. It can be concluded that the time delay on the pile can increase the bearing capacity and must be limited to a certain time in case of pile connection work on site. The variation additional loads due to the time delays in a soil mass may be affected by soil parameters such as density and particle size of the soil.

  23. INTEGRATED INSTRUMENTAL MONITORING OF HAZARDOUS GEOLOGICAL PROCESSES UNDER THE KAZBEK VOLCANIC CENTER Download Article

    Zaalishvili V.B., Melkov D.A., Dzeranov B.V., Morozov F.S. and Tuaev G.E.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (158-163)
    • No of Download = 435

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    Kazbek volcanic center is characterized by the complex interrelationship of various hazardous geological processes. The proximity of populated areas and infrastructure objects (the main one is the Georgian Military Road connecting Russia with South Caucasus) determines high social and economic risks of the region. Disasters of 2002 and 2014 caused by ice-rock fall govern importance of investigation of the area. It must be based on instrumental data collection and seismic monitoring is the first continuous technique covering both exogenous and endogenous processes, especially of possible volcanic activity and various postvolcanic phenomena. That’s why complex observational network “Karmadon Parametric Range” was established in September 2003. The network recorded a collapse of the mass of ice and rocks in the region of the Devdorak glacier on May 17, 2014 and the movement of the formed stone-ice avalanche. Research group for the first time faced with the movement of massive extended objects seismic records processing and analysis. New techniques as energy release and wavelet-based spectral-temporal graphs were developed. Flow velocities are estimated on the basis of slope variation along the trace. As the result, determined accordance of the events of 2002 Kolka glaciers fall and the 2014 Devdorak region rockfall is probably an evidence of general formation nature of both processes. And the main aim is to determine early evidences of the future events on the basis of a new instrumental monitoring of Kazbek volcanic center system. It must reveal characteristics of the Kazbek volcano and significantly improve natural hazards safety of the region.

  24. THE STUDY OF DEOXYGENATION RATE OF RANGKUI RIVER WATER DURING DRY SEASON Download Article

    Yonik Meilawati Yustiani, Hary Pradiko and Rahmad Hadjeri Amrullah
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (164-169)
    • No of Download = 441

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    Rangkui River is a river that passes through the area of Pangkalpinang City, Indonesia. The condition of the River Rangkui is now polluted, especially in the urban areas. Utilization of water quality model is one popular method to recover the river condition. Deoxygenation rate is an important coefficient in the BOD-DO formula used in the water quality model. This study was aimed to find out the actual coefficient of water deoxygenation rate of Rangkui River, especially in the dry season. Sampling was conducted at two location points that are considered to represent the condition of rivers in urban areas. The method of laboratory analysis used in the calculation of deoxygenation rate was using Winkler Method and Slope Method, while empirical formula used in deoxygenation rate calculation was using Hydroscience Equation formula for normal flow. The results showed that the value of deoxygenation rate range (K1) in the Rangkui River was between 0.14 to 0.41 per day and the BOD Ultimate (La) range was between 8.53 to 70.64 mg / L. As for the value of deoxygenation rate range (K1) on the River Rangkui using empirical formula was ranging from 0.49 to 0.55 per day. Higher values of deoxygenation rate generated from the empirical formula show the characteristic of typical polluted urban rivers.

  25. STAKEHOLDER INTERACTIONS MODEL OF GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT IN SEMARANG CITY/INDONESIA Download Article

    Novie Susanto and Thomas Triadi Putranto
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (170-177)
    • No of Download = 411

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    This research aims at developing a stakeholder interactions model in the context of groundwater management in Semarang City. The data in this research was gathered through an in-depth interview with related stakeholders, such as the Regional Office of Energy and Mineral Resources in Central Java Province (ESDM), Industrial Estate Developer and Societies in Semarang City. Stakeholder linkage analysis is conducted using Role and Responsibility Charting (RACI) method to see the balance of responsibilities and the role of stakeholders. The number of respondents in this research is 27 respondents who are divided proportionally based on groundwater vulnerability classification (high, medium, low). The result of this research shows that there are five groundwater management activities involving the Regional Office of Energy and Mineral Resources, Industrial Estate Developer, and Societies, such as supervision and evaluation, legalization, guidance, conflict mediation and reporting.

  26. SIMULATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE SCOURING PREVENTION STRUCTURE AT THE EXTERNAL RAIL BALLAST USING PHYSICAL MODEL Download Article

    Pranoto Samto Atmojo, Sri Sangkawati Sachro, Sutarto Edhisono and Iwan K Hadihardaja
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (178-185)
    • No of Download = 405

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    Rail ballast is a rockfill construction that serves to bind sleepers and rail which distributes trainload to ground. The function of rail ballast is vital to the quality and strength of the rail track, but are prone to overtopping. The relationship between overtopping high and scouring has been investigated, as well as the effect of the high external prevention structure against the length of scouring. This study focuses on the effectiveness of external prevention structure at downstream in its ability to dampen and reduce the length of scouring due to overtopping by the mean the physical model. This research simulates the scouring prevention structure at downstream of ballast with several variations of type (T) and structures distance (L) so that the most effective structure is obtained, i.e. the structure which can maximum reduce the length of scouring. From the research, the most effective structure is the Type T1 at L1 distance. The modeling was carried out at the Hydraulic Laboratory of Civil Engineering Diponegoro University, with the prototype of the Mangkang-Semarang Railway KM.12 Indonesia, with the scale of 1: 5. The structure types which are simulated consist of T, T1 and T2 with the variation of structure distance L1 = 40 cm and L2 = 60 cm from downstream of toe ballast. The results of this study can be utilized by railway operator as a safety measure and especially against the danger of scouring due to flooding.

  27. BEHAVIOR OF DRY-RETAINING WALL Download Article

    Poungchompu Pongsagorn, Bubpi Attaphol and Seawsirikul Sorasak
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (186-192)
    • No of Download = 400

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    The research objective was to study the behavior of dry-retaining wall bricks. The general method for constructing the retaining wall used the reinforced concrete structure. This research used interlocking bricks was an alternatives material from community products. There was a low price and operated cost and simply can construction by local general workers. The research was to create a model of the interlocking bricks, retaining wall used size in width x height x thickness to 1.50 x 2.00 x 0.125 m respectively. Selected distribution horizontal earth pressure by materials was sand, rubber plate, steel molding, steel plate, hydraulic jack. Rubber plate thickness to 2.00 mm for cover sand in mold to 0.15 m of radius in a semicircle shape and height 1.60 m thickness 8.0 mm. Used hydraulic jack 30 tons for apply load circle step by step and measure displacement value by dial gauge. The models had 4 patterns was half and full bricks wall, reinforced bars in half bricks wall with tight force and reinforced bars in half bricks wall with tightly force and anchor. The results were found a reinforcement bars with a half arrange interlocking bricks wall with anchorage pattern shown a maximum stability with an applied force of 10 lb for increasing the strength of the retaining wall.

  28. STRAIN RATE AND THERMAL EFFECT ON STRESS-STRAIN BEHAVIOR OF ORGANIC CLAY Download Article

    Pimparch Phanvisavakarn and Tanan Chub-uppakarn
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (193-200)
    • No of Download = 425

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    Organic deposits are commonly encountered in estuaries regions. Organic matter directly affects the engineering properties of soil. However, all most economic cities in the world are located in this areas consisting of organic soil. Therefore, a technique to improve the properties of organic soil is important. This work is focused on improving engineering properties of organic soil by heating. In order to investigate the behavior, Pakpanang marine deposit clay is selected for this work. The scope of this research is to study the behavior of soil by using temperature control consolidated undrained triaxial compression test. The strain-rate dependency of undrained shear strength, pore water pressure, and stress path are investigated. The influence of normally consolidated (NC) on stress-strain behaviors of soil is examined. The results of tests indicated that the temperature relatively inverse to organic matter of soil and weaken the strength of soil.

  29. LAND USE/COVER CHANGE AND LANDSCAPE FRAGMENTATION ANALYSES IN KHON KAEN CITY, NORTHEASTERN THAILAND Download Article

    Tran Van Ninh and Chattichai Waisurasingha
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (201-208)
    • No of Download = 453

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    The aim of this study is to determine the land use and land cover changes in Khon Kaen city, Thailand, using landscape fragmentation analysis together with multi-temporal Landsat data acquired during 1990-2015. Using support vector machine techniques, multi-temporal Landsat imagery was classified to derive a map of land use and land cover change and subsequently analyze the landscape fragmentation to determine the factors driving this change. The results showed that most of the built-up area was converted from an agricultural area, illustrating the expansion of the urban area over the past twenty-five years. Consequently, the landscape has become more highly fragmented as indicated by an increase in the patch number and a decrease in the mean patch size of the agriculture land cover class. Economic development, education system development, population growth and the improvement of traffic infrastructure are main factors driving land use and land cover change in Khon Kaen city.