Articles

  1. INFLUENCE OF SITE GEOLOGY ON THE SEISMIC BEHAVIOR OF CONCRETE DAMS Download Article

    M. I. Bessaid, B. Rouissat and M. Matallah
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1-8)
    • No of Download = 283

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    In seismic zones, arch dames are the most feasible when the geology and the integration of ancillary structures allow it. Arch dams postpone the hydrostatic push on the foundation by bows (under compression). It is the slenderness of the valley, the geometry of the arch, and the contrast of rigidity between the concrete and the rock that determine the behavior of the structure. The stability of this type of dam differs essentially from that of gravity dams, which results from a certain inequality between the flow of water and the weight. An intermediate design combination between the two; gravity and arch profiles is the arch-gravity dam, which takes advantages of each type of dam. The failure of this type of structure under earthquakes is generally accompanied by dramatic damage on both human and material sides. Consequently, it is important to study in a reliable and precise way their dynamic behavior considering the impact of the geology of the site, which plays an important role on the profile to be adapted and on the seismic response of the structure. The purpose of this paper is to carry out a comparative analysis between the gravity dam response and the single and double curvature arch dam response with variable site conditions. A finite element numerical modeling using the Cast3M code is performed to analyze and evaluate the vulnerability of each profile design. Proportionality is deduced between the displacement of the crest and the rock type on the one hand, and between the crack opening evolution and the rock deformation modulus, on the other hand.

  2. MODELING ADAPTATION TO SALINITY INTRUSION IN SEGARA ANAKAN ESTUARY DUE TO SEA LEVEL RISE Download Article

    Feril Hariati,Harman Ajiwibowo, Iwan K. Hadihardaja and Joko Nugroho
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (9-17)
    • No of Download = 257

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    This research of the Segara Anakan Estuary, Java Island, Indonesia, is carried out with the aim of developing a salinity intrusion model and investigating the adaptation scheme to mitigate the impact of sea level rise. The study includes topography, water level and current velocity field data acquisition to provide the required information for modeling. The bathymetry data are obtained from secondary data. The model uses the Surface-water Modeling System (SMS) developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers. The flow model within the SMS (RMA2 module) results in current velocity distribution in the domain, which is validated by field data. The validated flow model is developed into a water quality model (RMA4 module). It is found that the current velocity and salinity trend is highly correlated with Citanduy River discharge, which at the lowest value, the tide is able to propagate over 10 km into the Citanduy River. The simulation period is until 2050, in which the results show a sea level rise of 23.2 cm (referred to 2018). The model also shows that the saline water moves farther inland in 2050, impacting a salinity increase of ~0.5–2.5 ppt along the Citanduy River. In 2050, with check dam protection, an area of ~16.16 km from the mouth of the Citanduy River is only able to yield 75% productivity from October to December. The top elevation of the check dam becomes the determining point for mitigation.

  3. EFFECTS OF LINING JOINTS ON THE STABILITY OF ROADWAYS IN VIETNAMESE COAL MINES Download Article

    Tran Tuan Minh and Do Quang Tuan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (18-23)
    • No of Download = 252

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    Using heavy supports with a high bearing capacity of the load by precast concrete lining is a limited problem in other underground mines in Viet Nam. This solution avoids the excavation for expansion and increases the stability of roadways during operation. Most of the cases reported in the literature focus on considering the effect of geological conditions, roadway size, the depth of roadways, and excavation methods on the stability of roadways in a continuous rock mass with behaviors of isotropic and linear-elastic. In addition, these reports only consider the types of supports such as rock bolts, steel ribs, shotcrete and the combination of these supports. These cases also do not consider the effect of joints between segments in the precast concrete lining and roadways excavated in bedding rocks. This paper introduces the analysis of the stability of roadways in weak rocks using precast concrete lining base on using a two-dimensional finite element model in the Quang Ninh underground mines of Viet Nam. The results show a certain influence of joint distribution, joint number on the stability of roadways in the continuous and bedding rock mass.

  4. POSSIBILITY OF NEUTRAL-BASED SOLIDIFYING MATERIALS ON PREVENTING ELUTION OF RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES FROM RESERVOIRS Download Article

    Hiroyuki Hashida, Shinya Inazumi and Supakij Nontananandh
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (24-31)
    • No of Download = 347

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    The radioactive substances diffused with the occurrence of the 2011 Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant accident is still deposited in the sediment of the reservoir. In this research, based on the dynamics of radioactive substances in soil by previous research, focusing on solidification of the reservoir sediment, the authors examined the applicability of neutral-based solidifying materials to be used at that time. In particular, the authors compare the difference between cement-based solidifying material and two types of neutral-based solidifying materials and discuss whether it is desirable to use any solidifying material in solidification of the reservoir sediment from the environmental impact after the improvement. In addition, the authors conducted a test on the characteristics required when using neutral-based solidifying materials.

  5. BEARING CAPACITY OF SOIL BAGS ON SOFT GROUND REINFORCED BY BAMBOO PILE Download Article

    Suyuti, Mufti Amir Sultan and Zulkarmain K. Misbah
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (32-39)
    • No of Download = 347

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    North Maluku is one of the archipelago provinces in Indonesia. As reported by the Ministry of Public Works, this province has more than three thousand kilometers of coastline indicated to erosion [1]. The infrastructures and residences along coastal area have been frequently attacked by big waves. To protect the coastal aforementioned from the risk of natural disaster, the local government must construct a robust coastal bank. However, the bearing capacity of the soft ground is very weak for working as a bank. The procedure of the bank construction includes: preparing the construction area, installing bamboo piles, laying geo-bamboo on the piles, placing sandbags as the mattress and constructing selected materials. To make a reasonable way for the design of foundation soil using traditional reinforcement system for a coastal bank, an empirical calculation based on the rule of geotechnics has been discussed. The field CBR method was studied by conducting the full scale of model soil bags on very soft soil reinforced bamboo pile. Finally, the bearing capacity results of foundation soil were compared to the field CBR test for several properties of very soft soil, dimensions of soil bags and bamboo piles.

  6. REDUCTION OF VEHICLE-INDUCED VIBRATION USING LIQUEFIED STABILIZED SOIL Download Article

    Do Tuan Anh and Yukihiro Kohata
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (40-46)
    • No of Download = 364

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    Hanoi is the capital and second largest city in Vietnam. The process of urbanization poses numerous challenges to transportation systems such as traffic congestion and air pollution. The current situation calls for the development of comprehensive urban public transport systems. In addition, many urban areas and high-rise buildings have been constructed with high population density. On the other hand, the traffic-induced vibrations may cause structural damage and even failure and collapse of the structure. Therefore, the Liquefied Stabilized Soil (LSS) may be one of the effective methods to solve the problems.
    In this study, a numerical investigation was performed to evaluate the reduction of the ground vibrations due to passing vehicles. Particularly, the finite element (FE) model of a two-dimensional soil-structure system is considered. The model includes the cross-section of a route, the foundation ground, the backfill material, a nearby building with eight floors and one basement. The analysis results show that the using of LSS as backfilling material can reduce the ground vibration caused by passing vehicles.

  7. MODELING OF SEQUENT DEPTH RATIO FOR HYDRAULIC JUMP UNDER SLUICE GATE USING BAFFLE BLOCK AND SILL Download Article

    Sunik, Rispiningtati, Very Dermawan, Widandi Soetopo and Lily Montarcih Limantara
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (47-52)
    • No of Download = 318

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    The sequent depth ratio as one variable of hydraulic jump characteristics under sluice gate were studied experimentally using different configurations simulation of baffle block and sill. Experimental research used fiberglass prototype model as horizontal channel, width (B) = 50 cm, length (L) = 9 m and using sluice gate installed on it, width (b) = 50 cm, thick (t) = 1 cm, height (h) = 80 cm. Two models combination of baffle block as cubic (code K, 43 running) and trapezoidal (code T, 72 running) with different dimension installed as three row, specified location 25 cm after sluice gate. During each running test with variation open gate (a = 1,2,3,4 cm), variation type of baffle block (K1, K2, K3; T1, T2, T3, T4), the sequent depth, velocity distribution and Froude number were measured and analyzed. The result showed that the modeling of sequent depth ratio in term of the initial Froude number gives the better performance for cubic baffle block (K3, sill 2 cm and 2.7 cm, Fr = 0.16 - 0.39) with R2 = 0.9945 and trapezoidal baffle block (T4, sill 3.6 cm, Fr = 0.26 – 0.52) with R2 = 0.9973. It concluded that using three rows configuration of baffle block (cubic and trapezoidal baffle block) with value of blockage ratio as 50% was appropriate with USBR standard that value blockage ratio “η” do not exceed 0.5 (depend on the width of the block (Wb), spacing between adjacent blocks (S) and the number of baffle blocks).

  8. AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD FOR DETERMINING EROSION PARAMETERS RELATED TO NON-LINEAR MODEL; BASED ON SUBMERGED JET EROSION TEST Download Article

    Surat Semmad, Tanan Chup-uppakan and Tanit Chalermyanont
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (53-61)
    • No of Download = 302

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    Erosion parameters are important factors in riverbank erosion and retreat analysis. The submerged jet test is a widely used technique for measuring erosion resistance of soil based on impinging jet theory. This study aimed to develop a method for determining erosion parameters related to a non-linear erosion model based on JET data, namely, the Linearization method (LM). To verify the LM, the erosion resistance of the U-Tapao riverbank soil was determined using a JET device. Test results show that the exponential rise equation fit well with the scour depth JET data (R2 = 0.931-0.999), and the critical shear stress of bank soils was in the range 1.306-24.33 Pa. The LM can be successfully applied to JET data, with R2 in range 0.800-0.985. The erodibility coefficients from LM ranged within 0.02-2.53 cm3/N·s. The LM improved the determination of erosion parameters, being superior to three existing methods (Blaisdell, Iterative, and Scour depth solution method). The LM proved more reliable than linear models in erosion rate prediction. This model approach also suggests that the JET testing processes should be revised.

  9. MODELING OF CONSTRUCTED WETLAND FOR INCREASING THE SURFACE WATER QUALITY BY USING WATER SENSITIVE URBAN DESIGN (WSUD) Download Article

    I Gede Darmawan, Lily Montarcih Limantara, Mohammad Solichin and Very Dermawan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (62-69)
    • No of Download = 289

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    This study intended to apply the constructed wetland for improving the water quality of the surface run-off mainly the river water of Tukad Badung. The constructed wetland consisted of four combined types such as 1) the sub-surface model without the vegetation and the surface with the combination of the sweet flag water lily vegetation; 2) the sub-surface model with the sweet flag vegetation and the surface with the water lily vegetation; 3) the sub-surface model without the vegetation and the surface with the water lily vegetation; and 4) the surface with the sweet flag vegetation and the surface with the water lily vegetation. The methodology uses the Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD). The result showed that the physical model-4 produced the optimal result and has the best process result of the pollutant decomposition. The result is hoped to give an input to the government to develop the constructed wetland for increasing the water quality.

  10. MARGINAL LATERITIC SOIL TREATED USING CERAMIC WASTE FOR RURAL ROAD APPLICATION Download Article

    Panich Voottipruex, Chairat Teerawattanasuk and Ittipon Meepon
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (70-77)
    • No of Download = 277

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    This research aims to improve lateritic soil from Chachoengsao province 82 km from Bangkok with ceramic wastes. Engineering properties of lateritic were tested that included liquid limit, plastic limit, specific gravity, and modified compaction, permeability, and Los Angeles abrasion tests. Sieve analysis and engineering properties of mixed materials were also conducted. The maximum dry density (Modified Proctor Density) and the optimum water content of the natural studied soil were 1.95 g/cm3 and 10% while the maximum MDD and OMC obtained from the specimen with lateritic soil: CM ratios of 90:10 are 2.23 kN/m3 and 8%, respectively. The lateritic soil was mixed with ceramic fragments of 3, 5, 7, 10, 15 and 20% by weight of dry soil. The results show that lateritic soil replaced by 10% ceramic fragment or the so-called proper blended samples exhibit the highest California Bearing Ratio (CBR) values and engineering properties conformed to the specification of Department of Rural Roads (DRR) of Thailand.

  11. LOCAL WISDOM IN CAPTURE FISHERIES ACTIVITY IN SABANGAU AREA, CENTRAL KALIMANTAN Download Article

    Evi Feronika Elbaar and Lily Montarcih Limantara
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (78-85)
    • No of Download = 192

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    Capture fisheries as part of the fishery sector has made a major contribution and has a great potential where the capture fisheries activity are greatly depended on the natural conditions and mechanisms implemented by the fishermen. The fascinating capture fisheries activity in the Sebangau area is impeccable to be studied in depth since the area has unique and exotic local wisdom and values that help to support environmental sustainability. This research aims to describe the local wisdom used in capture fisheries activity in Sabangau area. Based on the research needs, the approach method used is qualitative research method by conducting an interview with a questionnaire to 20 interviewees that directly engaged with capture fisheries activity in Sabangau area. The interviewees were chosen purposively by using a snowball sampling method. The result of the research was analyzed with Model Miles and Huberman, consisting of data reduction stage, data display stage and data conclusion stage. From the result of the research, it is found that in each aspect of capture fisheries activity in Sabangau area, the fishermen implement the local wisdom which was formed by the mechanism in capture fisheries activity as well as the culture or tradition from time to time. The local wisdom can be clearly seen from the terms used to name things or processes in an environment which refer to the rules imposed in the community.

  12. SHEAR ASSESSMENT OF FAILED RC BEAMS RETROFITTED BY SISAL MAT POLYMER COMPOSITE Download Article

    Diallo Souleymane M’Bara, Mohammed Matallah, Raphael Mutuku and Timothy Nyomboi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (86-94)
    • No of Download = 435

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    Retrofitting deteriorate structures in order to maintain and enhance the load-carrying capacity to upgrade structural components is necessary and has several economic and environmental advantages over demolition and reconstruction. The used of locally available materials, allowing the use of local skills, benefitting to the local economy and being low in cost for retrofitting should have greater priority for researchers in the field of structural engineering. In this paper, the assessment of failed RC beams retrofitted by sisal mat polymer composite externally bonded by strips on critical regions (SCR) is presented. Sisal fiber is one of the most available natural fibers and the eastern part of Africa is one of the biggest producers, so the application of sisal polymer composite as structural retrofitting needs to be investigated. The study focuses on a shear assessment where four beams were tested in three-point bending with two retrofitted after cracking and two as control specimens. By using strips in critical regions through main cracks, it was found that the sisal mat composite is suitable as raw material and increases the load-carrying capacity, reduce cracks propagation and modify the failure mode from pure shear to more ductile flexural-shear.

  13. PATCHOULI PLANT DEVELOPMENT IN TRENGGALEK REGENCY Download Article

    Achmad Tjachja Nugraha, Gunawan Prayitno, Chairul Maulidi, Shely L. Jahra and Lily Montarcih Limantara
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (95-100)
    • No of Download = 173

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    This study was conducted to determine the development of patchouli plants, based on market price analysis (supply chain analysis) and social factors (social capital) analysis. Social capital analyzes the rate of participation (ROP), density and centrality. The result of supply chain analysis showed that farmers sell the product directly to the refiners. The price varies between Rp 1,500 - Rp 5,000 for wet patchouli, while the dry patchouli is Rp 10,000. The rate of participation (ROP) indicates that farmers in Jombok and Tanggaran Village belong to moderate category (join in three institutions), and Pakel Village is in the lower category (only join in one institution). The result of the density analysis shows that the village of Jombok and Tanggaran have a high density. This means that the relationships among the respondents in these two villages are very close, where Pakel Village has a moderate density indicating a distant relationship among the respondents. The centrality analysis shows that the village of Jombok and Tanggaran have a high degree of centrality and the village of Pakel has a moderate degree of centrality. The relationship between the economic and social aspects of patchouli agriculture can be seen in the production process. This relationship can help the farmers to obtain seeds and fertilizers due to their close relationships or social networks, and they can deepen their knowledge about the patchouli production.

  14. DESIGN CRITERIA FOR A CONTROLLED DEMOLITION (IMPLOSION) Download Article

    Graeme McKenzie, Bijan Samali, Chunwei Zhang
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (101-112)
    • No of Download = 121

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    For an uncontrolled demolition (terrorist attack) explosives are detonated external to a structure primarily but not always. On occasions, the terrorist attack is internal to a structure which can also cause the building to collapse. With a controlled demolition (implosion), explosives are always used internally to a building. A building is imploded within its’ own design footprint but because of adjacent structures inhibiting it falls the building might have to be imploded and collapsed outside of its footprint. An oddity is the implosion of a chimney stack. Chimney stacks because of the physics involved can, whilst collapsing, break into two separate pieces which causes concern as the trajectory of fall can then become uncontrollable. Several conditions need to be addressed prior to a demolition as follows:
    • Is space available to accommodate the debris pile loose volume generated by the implosion?
    • Is the minimum charge weight of explosives being used?
    • Will the falling structure cause fragments to impact adjoining structures or can the fragmentation be contained?
    • Has consideration been given to dust control?
    • After considering structural details of the building does the structure lend itself to collapse through implosion or should the building be demolished by mechanical means? and
    • Does the demolition by implosion prove to be more economical and safer than mechanical means?
    A successful demolition occurs if the conditions above are appropriately addressed and executed. The alternative is to not follow the appropriate conditions and so face three failures that have occurred over the last 20 years in Australia.

  15. THE EFFECT OF BUILDING GEOMETRIC SHAPE AND ORIENTATION ON ITS ENERGY PERFORMANCE IN VARIOUS CLIMATE REGIONS Download Article

    Remon Lapisa
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (113-119)
    • No of Download = 356

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    Building thermal characteristic is one of the key factors in energy consumption. Many studies have been conducted to improve the building thermal performance for energy efficiency. In fact, building energy consumption and thermal comfort are affected by several factors, such as building geometry, structural design, building envelope materials, environment, local climate and occupancy patterns of the occupants within the occupied zone. In the building geometry aspect, two important parameters that have significant impacts on building thermal performance are building shape and orientation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of these parameters on building energy consumption. In the first part, the description of building characteristics is completely explained. Extensive numerical simulations using a coupling of TRNSYS (R) and CONTAM (C) have been performed under mono-zone building thermal design. Numerical simulation results showed that a compact building shape and appropriate building orientation can reduce the energy consumption for heating and cooling systems up to 81% depending on the geographical conditions where the building is located.

  16. NET RAINFALL MODELING BASED ON THE LAND COVER FOR ANALYSING THE LOW FLOW DISCHARGE Download Article

    Adhi Yanuar Avianta, Rispiningtati, Lily Montarcih Limantara and Ery Suhartanto
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (120-126)
    • No of Download = 343

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    This research intends to investigate the land cover change and to obtain the canopy interception in the Lesti sub-watershed, and to produce the rainfall-discharge modeling as the function of the net rainfall factor. The Lesti sub-watershed is selected because it has the basic physical condition and the Automatic Water Level Recorder (AWLR) data for carrying out the calibration. The methodology consists of identifying the land cover based on the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) classification, carrying out the field study to obtain the canopy interception, using the net-rainfall modeling as the input on the rainfall-discharge modeling of F.J. Mock. The net rainfall modeling which is designed in this research is as the correlation between the rainfall which is dropped and the canopy interception. The result shows that the use of net-rainfall on the rainfall-discharge modeling of F.J. Mock can increase the accuracy of generated discharge which is strongly influenced by the proportional of land classification.

  17. LANDSLIDES AND DEBRIS FLOWS AT KHAO PHANOM BENJA, KRABI, SOUTHERN THAILAND Download Article

    Arsit Iyaruk, Noppadol Phien-wej and Pham Huy Giao
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (127-134)
    • No of Download = 235

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    A detailed investigation of the characteristics of the 2011 catastrophic landslides of Khao Phanom Benja, Krabi, Thailand was conducted. The landslides on the slope faces of the high relief granitic mountain led to devastating debris flows of large rock boulders that buried houses in the foothill area. The unfavorable orientations of four major joint sets of the mountain created high kinematic instability of rock wedge slides along the stream channel direction as well as rock wedge formation on the channel walls in the eastern sides of the mountain. Weathering and joint opening in the areas of slopes and stream channels increase the vulnerability of rock slides, in particular for a prolonged heavy rainfall. The heavy rainfall and stream channel flow on slab block of rock slope erosion along stream bank caused down bank slope failure. The increasing upward water pressure caused the increase in uplift force behind the rock block and rock wedge failure. In addition, the hazard zone delineation of debris flows deposition was mapped out using a MATLAB codenamed as FLOWS. Majority of slides on the eastern slopes of the mountain were granitic rock slide modes while soil slide and surface erosion on the residual soil to completely weathered sedimentary rock were the predominant modes of failure on the western and northern slopes in lower areas at foothills of the mountain. As found in this investigation the factors influencing landslides and debris flows in 2011 at Khao Phanom Benja, Krabi, southern Thailand were not only limited to the prolonged rainfall but also to slope gradient, rock types and weathering degree, discontinuity characteristics.

  18. COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OPTIMIZATION OF CONCRETE MIXED WITH WASTE CERAMICS AND FLY ASH Download Article

    Kenneth Jae T. Elevado, Joenel G. Galupino and Ronaldo S. Gallardo
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (135-140)
    • No of Download = 335

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    Waste utilization has been one of the most vital aspects in the construction industry towards sustainability. It addresses the dilemmas that waste disposals face specifically the non-biodegradable materials such as damaged ceramics and industrial byproducts like fly ash. Recent studies have shown that damaged ceramics and fly ash obtain physical properties that are similar to the conventional aggregates of concrete and cement, respectively. In this study, experimental procedures were conducted to evaluate the compressive strength of concrete mixed with varying amount of fly ash and waste ceramics following the compressive strength test stipulated under ASTM C 39. Furthermore, strength development was also accounted through subjecting the concrete specimens to different curing periods. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was used to provide the optimum combination of fly ash and waste ceramics that produces the most desirable compressive strength. The optimization results indicated that the optimum combination of waste ceramic tiles and fly ash replacements was 75% and 25% substitutions, respectively. This combination attains the maximum nominal compressive strength of 37.188 MPa. Similarly, the resulting Response Surface Methodology (RSM) model was validated to ensure that the model is acceptable.

  19. DEEP AND SHALLOW STRUCTURES OF GEOTHERMAL SEULAWAH AGAM BASED ON ELECTROMAGNETIC AND MAGNETIC DATA Download Article

    Marwan, Muhammad Syukri, Rinaldi Idroes and Nazli Ismail
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (141-147)
    • No of Download = 332

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    Indonesia is a country with the largest geothermal reserves in the world, but exploration and utilization of geothermal energy are still low. As an effort in increasing the exploration process, an integrated geophysical method to image the subsurface structure of the geothermal system has been done at Seulawah Agam Geothermal Field, Aceh Province, Indonesia. Very low frequency (VLF-R) method was used for shallow and magnetotellurics method for deep structures studies in the area. The magnetic method was used for a complementary of the electromagnetic methods. Magnetotelluric data were acquired at ten stations along a 30 km distance profile crossing the Seulawah Agam volcano in a north-south direction. The VLV-R and Magnetic stations were measured on the Ie Ju manifestation area only, located at the northern slope of the volcano. The magnetic and VLF-R methods have been able to investigate the local structure, while the regional structure of subsurface is described by the magnetotelluric method. 2D resistivity model of magnetotelluric data shows a conceptual model of the geothermal system based on resistivity variation. The model also reveals two local faults crossing the volcano in a northwest-southeast direction. Most of the geothermal manifestations in Seulawah Agam are controlled these faults. Application of VLF-R and magnetic methods on the Ie Ju manifestation area has shown clearly near-surface structures of the area. The inverted models have a strong agreement with a reduction to the pole of total magnetic field anomalies. Presence of the conductors in the resistivity models coincides with low total magnetic field anomalies. In addition, the total magnetic field anomalies map can be also used to locate the presence of geothermal manifestation with or without their appearance on the surface.

  20. SOIL/LAND USE CHANGES AND URBAN SPRAWL IDENTIFICATION IN PANDAAN DISTRICT, INDONESIA Download Article

    Gunawan Prayitno, Nindya Sari1, A.R. Taufiq Hidayat, Nyoman Widhi S.W., Dwi Maulidatuz Z.
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (148-153)
    • No of Download = 320

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    The phenomenon of urban sprawl is a serious problem worldwide for environmental and socio-economic reasons. Land used to change from agricultural land to others activities like settlements, industrial users, and infrastructure development is common in urban-rural relation. Pandaan District that located near Surabaya City and in the main road to Malang city have the indication of urban sprawl. Urban Sprawl is a phenomenon that occurs from fast city development but has limited land, thus pushing the population to the suburban areas and even outside the area of the main city. This research aims to determine the pattern of land use change and identify urban sprawl based on patterns of land use changes from 2010 to 2018. We use GIS methods that could process spatial analysis using multi-temporal satellite imagery (time series data) of the study area. The results of the analysis with GIS conclude that the land use change in Pandaan District from 2010 to 2018 the highest change in non-built-up land use is wetland/paddy fields. The change is from 2789.21 hectares in 2010 to 2575.52 hectare in 2018 or decreases 213.69 hectares. Related to the identification of urban sprawl, there are eight villages identified as having experienced sprawl, that is Plintah village, Durensewu village, Karangjatim village, Wedoro village, Tawangrejo village, Nogosari village, Kemirisewu village, and Banjarsari Village.

  21. CHARACTERISTICS OF SEMILIR FORMATION IN RELATIONSHIP WITH THE PERIOD OF VOLCANIC ACTIVITY Download Article

    Amara Nugrahini, Vijaya Isnaniawardhani, Adjat Sudradjat and Nana Sulaksana
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (154-162)
    • No of Download = 312

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    The Semilir Formation in the Baturagung area is a tipelocation of the Semilir Formation that is physiographically located on the part of the Southern Mountains Zone. Its spread extends from the western part of Imogiri, DIY, in the middle of Mt. Baturagung, to the eastern end of Mt. Gajahmungkur height. The Semilir Formation in the research area is aligned under Nglanggeran Formation and above Kebo-Butak Formation. The arrangement of rocks Semilir Formation in the basin of the Southern Mountains of Java is still seen from the standpoint of stratigraphy-sedimentology. The rock formation mainly consists of alternating breccia, sandstone, and claystone. Where the rock unit consists of tuff, tufflapilli, and pumice breccia, with generally rich in volcanic glass and quartz. These characteristics are related to volcano activities. This phenomenon is interesting to be studied further in order to reveal the volcano activities at that time that plays a role in the Semilir Formation. This study was studied from the perspective of stratigraphy-sedimentology and volcanology by measuring a detailed measurement of stratigraphy in order to obtain a sequence of lithologic variations of its constituent rocks. Detailed stratigraphic measurements that are characteristic of the Semilir Formation in connection with the periodization of volcanic eruptions in the South Mountain Basin indicate that there were 84 units of volcanic eruptions in 14 periods lie on the older volcanic rock succession. The location of this research is Semilir, Baturagung, Nglipar, Gunung Kidul, approximately south of Klaten, Central Java.

  22. MODIFICATION OF ROCK MASS CLASSIFICATION IN THE ROCK SLOPE PLATY JOINTED ANDESITE AT SELOHARJO AREA Download Article

    Arie Noor Rakhman, Zufialdi Zakaria, Dicky Muslim, Iyan Haryanto and Sri Mulyaningsih
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (163-170)
    • No of Download = 294

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    The research area is located in the Seloharjo Area, the southern hills of Opak River, Bantul Regency, Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia. This study explores the application of rock mass classification assessment by modifying the Q system (SQR) for rock slope stability (SMR) where the constituent lithology is platy jointed andesite. Andesite in the research area is lava haze, where currently the rock slopes are prone to rockfall since the earthquake in 2006. Correction of Q system parameters in the research area is controlled by oriented slopes and joints that were weathered into clay minerals filling the joints. The slope between 74° and 78° with strikes of the slope face between N 110° E and N 228° E. Strike direction of the planar joint plane is between N 136° E and N 238° E with an angle of dip is 20° and 26°. The presence of secondary minerals dominated by smectite and illite clay minerals. Based on the value of the RMR between 43 and 72 with the SMR value between 59.99 and 87.03, the Q value between 7.47 and 299.35, the SQR value between 84.58 and 2,564.10, the equation in the form of SMR = 7LnSQR + 30 is obtained.

  23. ANALYSIS OF LAND CARRYING CAPACITY FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF LEADING COMMODITIES IN KULON PROGO REGENCY, INDONESIA Download Article

    Achmad Tjahja N., Gunawan Prayitno and Nyoman Widhi Surya Wardana
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (171-176)
    • No of Download = 282

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    Kulon Progo Regency is one of the regencies in the Special Province of Yogyakarta Indonesia, known for its diverse natural resources, including agricultural commodities. The Agricultural products that have become the leading commodity of Kulon Progo include pepper, coffee, cloves, durian, and cocoa. The development of leading commodities is a strategic step to improve the economy of the region, especially in increasing the Gross Regional Domestic Product (GRDP). Finding the potential for developing agricultural commodities can be done through the analysis of land carrying capacity. Analysis of land carrying capacity can be divided into land use capability and land suitability analysis. The map overlay results in the form of a slope, soil type, and rainfall are produced by several classes of land capability, where the ideal location is dominated in Kalibawang, Samigaluh, Girimulyo, Kokap, and part of Pengasih District with a slope of less than 40%. The topographic analysis shows the dominance of relatively flat land, with a dominant slope of 0-8%. Basing the analysis above on the Guidelines for Public Works No. 20 of 2007 obtained a total weight between 84-108. This value shows that land use is dominated by the direction of perennial crops.

  24. IDENTIFICATION SLIP SURFACE USING RESISTIVITY AND VLF-R MODE IN GOA KISKENDO YOGYAKARTA INDONESIA Download Article

    Sismanto, Melinda Dwi Erintina and Lutfia Tri Wahyuni
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (177-183)
    • No of Download = 417

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    In the tourism area of Goa Kiskendo, Jatimulyo Village, district Girimulyo of Kulonprogo, Yogyakarta province which is quite popular for naturally cave tourist destination. In November 2017, there was a landslide that broke the transportation route to the Goa Kiskendo, Yogyakarta-Central Java province tourism area. Based on the Center of Volcanology for Disaster and Geological Mitigation map of soil movement in Girimulyo district, Jatimulyo Village is in the medium to high-risk movement zone. To anticipate aftershocks of a landslide in the same area, it is necessary to map areas that are potentially landslide occurs. For mapping, this area, the geophysical surveys using resistivity method with dipole-dipole configuration and electromagnetic very low frequency (VLF) resistivity mode were conducted in Goa Kiskendo area to identify the slip surface based on the contrast resistivity value. From the results of resistivity data processing, and 3D visualization it is obtained a contrast of different resistance values consist of two layers. The first layer, which is in the range of 10 Ωm-79 Ωm, is identified as soil and the second layer, which is in the range of 0,15 Ωm-10 Ωm is interpreted as water saturated limestone. Water saturated limestone is identified as the slip surface or bedrock in the depth of 3 m – 25 m, and the soil movement when the landslide occurs, the materials will move from the north to southeastward.

  25. EFFECT OF NODAL ELEVATION REVISION IN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM: A CASE STUDY OF METROPOLITAN WATERWORKS AUTHORITY, THAILAND Download Article

    Rangsan Wannapop, Thira Jearsiripongkul and Krit Jiamjiroch
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (184-189)
    • No of Download = 305

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    Bangkok, Nonthaburi and Samut Prakan are the three most densely populated provinces in Thailand. They have a large drinking water consumption supplied by the Metropolitan Waterworks Authority (MWA). MWA’s service area is over 2.42 km2 with 2.33 million customers (1 customer is 1 household) and it had to supply 5.843 million m3 of drinking water per day in the year 2017. Because the main pipe network is very complex and extremely large. For this reason, it is very difficult to manage the water supply. In order to decide a suitable supply, EPANET is one of the tools for managing water supply in the main water piping network but it can lead to an error of nodal elevation in the pipe network. In this research, we have revised the nodal elevation on the pipe network by reference from Bangkok roads elevation map, it was found that the new pipe network has better accuracy of up to 87.63%, an improvement on the existing model of 3.95%.

  26. ADDITIONAL STRUCTURAL DAMAGE FROM GROUND SHOCK AS A RESULT OF A BOMBING Download Article

    Graeme McKenzie, Bijan Samali, Chunwei Zhang and Eric Ancich
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (190-203)
    • No of Download = 140

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    The term bombing refers to an uncontrolled demolition (implosion) where a terrorist employs an explosive of a charge weight and detonates it at range and height (air or ground blast) suitable to cause the maximum damage. For a designer trying to design a structure in advance of such a situation happening is extremely difficult thus requiring the consideration of past bombings for the pertinent design parameters. Ground shock is a small earthquake that impacts the structure via energy released from the detonation of the bomb into the ground being converted to wave energy with compression (P) waves, shear (S) waves and the most damaging surface Raleigh (R) waves moving out in all directions from the point of detonation whether it is on or above ground. The common measurement for quantifying ground shock from blast loadings is the peak particle velocity (PPV) as it correlates reasonably well with both building damage and the annoyance levels that people can tolerate under normal circumstances. The Oklahoma City VIED bombing has been used as an example using CONWEP software for a 2200kg VIED detonated at 4.75m from the building. Ground shock results showed that a PPV of 11.5m/s (11500mm/s) was achieved well in excess of guidelines set by AS 2187 and DIN 4150. As well the structure was subjected to radial displacements of 100mm to 350mm adding to the overall damage. Considering the ground shock results along with a reflected overpressure of 51.17MPa it is unsurprising that the building collapsed and many were killed and injured. This is the recommended design overpressure.

  27. STATE-OF-THE-ART REVIEW ON STRONTIUM TOXICOKINETICS, MECHANISTIC RESPONSE, ALTERATIONS AND REGULATIONS Download Article

    Arif Ali Baig Moghal, Syed Abu Sayeed Mohammed and Mosleh Ali Al-Shamrani
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (204-214)
    • No of Download = 399

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    Strontium is mostly present in oil, coal, soil, and rocks in the form of isotopes of four types 84Sr, 86Sr, 87Sr and 88Sr. It resembles the chemical form of calcium and even replaces the position in bones and other places where calcium finds its importance in the human or animal body. Strontium, if exchanged with calcium in greater quantity, can cause serious effects like cancer in bone and its neighboring tissues and necrotic lesions. However, the effect is negligible when the exchange is lesser. If present in the geo-environment, strontium compounds in both forms stable or radioactive percolates in the groundwater, but a majority of this compound present in soil remains undisturbed for a considerable amount of time. The permissible amount of strontium which can be acceptable in water according to the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is 4 mg L-1. Further presence of strontium up to 240 mg kg1 in soil is considered as less toxic to grownups not suffering from malnutrition. Anthropogenic and natural activities leading to the release of strontium in the atmosphere pose a chance of transportation and deposition by the wet deposition method. The natural treatment of strontium by biodegradation or hydrolysis does not decay atoms of strontium due to its form. This paper deals with the chemical and physical properties and toxicokinetics of strontium. Moreover, a few points pertaining to the health of flora and fauna when it is in direct contact with strontium and the safety concerns with relevant regulations are discussed.

  28. REVIEWOF BUILDING DESIGN SYSTEMS AND PROBLEMATIC STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS INHIBITING PROGRESSIVE COLLAPSE Download Article

    Graeme McKenzie, Bijan Samali and Chunwei Zhang
    • Article Type: Review Article
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    • Pages (215-221)
    • No of Download = 199

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    To design for blast or ballistic loadings a structure is or has been subjected to, a designer needs to be fully aware of all aspects of normal building design systems that will be confronted as well how the mechanism of collapse will or has occurred. Some structures, depending on how they are designed or constructed, possess inherent structural problems that can impede collapse. In the case of controlled demolition (implosion) prior to the use of explosives RC stairwells should be removed, RC facia with windows removed, all internal cladding and ceilings removed and internal shear walls used to accommodate wind loadings demolished. RC floors should be weakened by the removal of sections of the concrete floor matric thus allowing for the formation of plastic hinges when the tensile forces in the floors shift to the reinforcing steel causing it to yield. Everything possible must be done to facilitate collapse and allow gravity to assist in the process. With an uncontrolled demolition (implosion) many factors are unknown during the design process and assumptions must be made. In this case based on past events, explosives and charge weights used must be assumed in advance of an event but nevertheless, the design engineer must produce a design that facilitates a delay in collapse long enough for those caught inside the structure to escape to safety. Understanding building design systems in relation to possible collapse and problematic structural elements that could possibly inhibit such collapse are imperatives in designing for and against explosive demolitions.

  29. FRESH AND HARDENED PROPERTIES OF RECYCLED CONCRETE AGGREGATE MODIFIED BY IRON POWDER AND SILICA Download Article

    Feras Al Adday, Aymen Awad, Rawan Aleghnimat, Hamzeh Bassam4 and Amer Khater
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (222-230)
    • No of Download = 361

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    In recent years, significant attention has been given by researchers to use recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) instead of natural aggregate (NA) in concrete mixes to decrease the demand on the natural aggregate resources and to reduce its environmental effects. This research work was carried out to investigate the efficiency of using RCA in concrete mixes in place of natural coarse aggregate. 90 cubes of (100 x 100 x 100 mm) with different percentages of RCA (0%, 30%, 45%, and 60%) at water to cement ratio of 0.4 and using 0% and 2.5% superplasticizer were casted. For that mix which was prepared with 45% of RCA 54 cubes of (100 x 100 x 100 mm) were cast with different percentages of iron powder in place of fine aggregate (10%, 15%, and 20 %). The hardened test was examined to measure the compressive strength after 7, 14 and 28 days of curing. Fresh property test was conducted (Slump test) to study the efficiency of using RCA on workability. The results of the study showed that the fresh property was decreased by increasing the RCA replacement. The compressive strength of the RCA was decreased by increasing the RCA replacement. For specimens cast using 45% of the RCA the compressive strength was increased by increasing iron powder replacement.

  30. INVESTIGATION ON SOIL CUTTING BY NON-BUCKET BOTTOM ROTOR END CHISELS Download Article

    Serik Nurakov and Talal Аwwad
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (231-237)
    • No of Download = 358

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    A new design of the bottom unload non-bucket rotor (BUNBR) for an open-pit excavator with additional end chisels is described. It makes it possible not only to increase the output due to additional end chisels on the shell but also to reduce the slope stress due to soil cutting from top to bottom on the working face and creation of a wider berm in comparison with the existing constructions of rotary working bodies. The method of calculation of soil cutting with the end chisel in the form of a two-sided skewed wedge is presented. Based on the spatial scheme of the cutting force components acting in the soil cutting, the expressions in coordinate axes for soil resistance to cutting with the end chisel were determined. These results were used to derive expressions for the tangential and end (lateral) cutting force exerted by a two-sided skewed wedge mounted at the BUNBR end side and to determine the total soil cutting force simultaneously exerted by the corner and end chisels.

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