Articles

  1. TIME AND FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF THE ENGINE SUPPORT VIBRATION WITH HYDROGEN-DIESEL DUAL-FUELING Download Article

    Boonthum Wongchai, Poranat Visuwan and Sathaporn Chuepeng
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (1-8)
    • No of Download = 260

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    Hydrogen-diesel dual fuel is used as alternative energy in a diesel engine for saving diesel fuel and protecting the environment. Hydrogen is sustainable, renewable, and carbon-free. It can be produced from various procedures. Hydrogen addition affects engine vibration and car seat vibration. This article presents the effect of hydrogen flow rate on root mean square value and spectrum of the vibration of the engine support. The four-stroke single-cylinder diesel engine is tested with hydrogen-diesel dual fuel by varying hydrogen flow rate. The vibration of the engine support is measured at two constant speeds with three different loads. The root means square and the fast Fourier transform of the engine support vibration are calculated to analyze the vibration signals. The results of the root mean square of the total acceleration show that the root means square value of the engine support vibrations tends to increase by adding the hydrogen flow rate. The fast Fourier transform spectrums in the experimental results show that the average peak acceleration of the first three engine frequencies around 0 to 70 Hz tends to decrease by adding the hydrogen flow rate. The car seat resonance vibration at this frequency range can be reduced by adding the hydrogen flow rate.

  2. REVERSIBLE JUMP MCMC METHOD FOR HIERARCHICAL BAYESIAN MODEL SELECTION IN MOVING AVERAGE MODEL Download Article

    Suparman
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (9-15)
    • No of Download = 250

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    Moving average (MA) is one of the mathematical models that is often used to model data in various fields. Noise in the MA model is often assumed to be normally distributed. In application, it is often found that noise is exponentially distributed. The parameter of the MA model includes order, coefficient, and noise variance. This paper proposes a procedure to estimate the MA model parameter which contains noise with a normal and exponential distribution where the order is unknown. The estimation of parameters of the MA model parameter is carried out in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Prior distribution for the parameter is selected. The likelihood function for data is combined with prior distribution for the parameter to get posterior distribution for the parameter. The parameter dimension is a combination of several different dimensional spaces so that the posterior distribution for a parameter has a complex form and the Bayes estimator cannot be determined explicitly. The reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method is proposed to determine the Bayes estimator of the MA model parameter. The performance of the method is tested using a simulation study. The simulation result shows that the reversible jump MCMC method estimates the MA model parameter well. The reversible jump MCMC method can calculate the MA model parameter simultaneously and produce an invertible MA model.

  3. A STUDY OF THE QUALITY OF SOIL INFILTRATION AT THE DOWNSTREAM OF KURANJI RIVER, PADANG CITY Download Article

    Aprisal, Bambang Istijono, Taufika Ophiyandri and Nurhamidah
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (16-20)
    • No of Download = 201

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    The watershed at the downstream of Kuranji river often experience flooding. This is due to the rainfall runoff and the flat condition of the downstream area. Another factor might be due to low soil infiltration rate. The objective of this research was to analyze the quality of soil infiltration at the downstream of Kuranji River’s watershed. Research methodology that had been chosen as a field survey. Soil infiltration rate was measured using double ring infiltrometer. Location of soil sample was selected by purposive random sampling and was analyzed at the Department of Soil Science Andalas University. The data was analyzed using Horton formula to identify the capacity and the cumulative soil infiltration rate. The result showed that the area which often inundated and has high soil water table had a low infiltration rate. The results showed that the bulk density factor, clay fraction and dust significantly affect the capacity of soil infiltration. Moreover, bulk density, clay fraction, and dust influence soil infiltration capacity. Areas that have high infiltration capacity are Gunung Sariek, Aie Pacah, Ampang, Kurao Pagang, and Dadok Tunggul Hitam. Other sampling locations have low infiltration rate due to the high soil water table.

  4. DESALINATION OF SEAWATER USING NATURAL ZEOLITE FOR AGRICULTURAL UTILIZATION Download Article

    Takaaki Wajima
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (21-26)
    • No of Download = 143

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    The aim of this study is to provide an agricultural cultivation solution from seawater with a simple process using natural zeolite. In the 21st century, the demand for food is increasing due to the global population growth, and securing farmland is one of the most important factors in food production. Approximately 20 % of farmland in the world is salt-damaged soil with unsuitable properties for agriculture by high salinity water, and simple desalination methods of high salinity water to improve salt-damaged soil is desired. Natural zeolite has a cation exchange ability and is available in large quantities at low cost. In this study, desalination of seawater, as high salinity water, using Japanese clinoptilolite zeolites with typical exchangeable cation, Na+, K+, NH4+, Mg2+, and Ca2+, were examined. Ca2+-type zeolite indicates the highest reduction of NaCl from seawater among these ion-exchanged natural zeolites. The column experiment using Ca2+-type natural zeolite shows that pH can be controlled to neutral and salinity can be reduced by the reaction between Ca2+ in zeolite and other ions in seawater. Although Radish sprouts did not grow in seawater, they could be grown in the solution treated with column process of Ca2+-type natural zeolite.

  5. VIBRATION SIGNAL ANALYSIS OF A MOTORCYCLE Download Article

    Suphattharachai Chomphan
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (27-32)
    • No of Download = 331

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    Nowadays, the motorcycle is becoming widely popular because of their swiftness and conveniences in crowded cities. It is considered the most popular choice in various aspects of transportation in the urban area. When starting and accelerating the engine, it has been found that there was a vibration throughout all parts of the motorcycle. If the driver perceives more vibration, he will feel more uncomfortable. Consequently, the researcher conducted a study of the vibration signal sent through four core points which are the contacts between driver or rider and the motorcycle body including motorcycle left hand, seat, left front footrest, and left rear footrest. The specimen motorcycle is Honda Wave 100s model. The comparison results have been performed by using two parameters of averaged peak and averaged energy of the vibrational signal. The results reveal that the left front footrest has the highest vibration level in both parameters, while the seat has the lowest vibration level. Last but not least, it can be concluded that the mechanical structure of the motorcycle must be developed by considering the engine’s vibration sent through all parts especially the position of front footrest which has the highest impact in order to increase the driver’s comfort at the highest satisfaction.

  6. APPLICATION OF SCMR AND FLUORESCENCE FOR CHLOROPHYLL MEASUREMENT IN SUGARCANE Download Article

    Darika Bunphan, Naris Sinsiri and Ruchuon Wanna
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (33-38)
    • No of Download = 35

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    Chlorophyll is necessary for photosynthesis in plant and affecting for crop yield. Chlorophyll content can be directly measured, however, that method is destructive leaves. In sugarcane, indirect methods were used for drought or stress condition however literature is lacking for normal condition. The objective was to study the relationship between direct and indirect chlorophyll measurement. The experiment was conducted under 2 locations in Mahasarakham province, Thailand. RCBD with 4 replications and 16 varieties were used. The chlorophyll content (CC), SPAD chlorophyll meter reading (SCMR) and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) were measured five times and a month interval between 8-12 months after planting. The results revealed that CC and SCMR of 16 varieties in both locations were significantly different, however, CF was not significantly different. The interaction between location and varieties were found. The relationships between methods of measurement were also found. At Kut Rung district, CC and SCMR were positively correlated in 8 to 12 months except for 11 months (0.71**, 0.55*, 0.77**and 0.78** respectively). Another location, CC and SCMR were correlated in 8 and 9 months (0.51*and 0.73** respectively) and CF was not correlated with CC and SCMR. Combined analysis, CC was positively correlated with SCMR at 8-12 months except for 11 months (0.61*, 0.55*, 0.63**and 0.50* respectively). SCMR is a useful strategy for indirectly chlorophyll measurement in sugarcane. CF could not apply for measurement in this case. For further research, we are looking for a relationship between chlorophyll content and sugarcane yield or other desirable characteristics in sugarcane.

  7. THE EFFECTS OF α17-METHYLTESTOSTERONE ON SEX REVERSAL OF RED TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS NILOTICUS X OREOCHROMIS MOSSAMBICUS) IN THE FREE-SWIMMING STAGE Download Article

    Supamas Sriwongpuk
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (39-45)
    • No of Download = 61

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    The effects of 17α-Methyltestosterone (MT) on sex reversal of Red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis mossambicus) in the free-swimming stage by immersion and feeding techniques were studied at the Department of Fisheries, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Rajamangala University of Technology Thanyaburi, Pathumthani Province from April to July 2017. The experimental design was a factorial experiment in CRD which studied two factors: 1) sex reversal by immersion treatment of 17α-MT (0, 150 and 300 μg/l) for 3 hours (T1, T2, and T3) and 2) sex reversal by feeding treatment of 17α-MT (40, 60 and 80 mg/kg) for 28 days (F1, F2 and F3). Results from these studies indicated that during the free-swimming stage, the immersion treatment of 17α-MT in 300 μg/l for 3 hours (T3) had the highest growth rate in terms of weight, total length (28 days), ADG, FCR and survival rate (0.731 g, 3.340 cm, 0.024 g/d, 0.627 and 95.443 % respectively). The immersion treatment of 17α-MT in 150 μg/l for 3 hours (T2) had a medial growth rate among the other factors. The immersion treatment of 17α-MT in 0 μg/l for 3 hours (T1) had a minimal growth rate but had the highest sex ratio of males (83.889 %). The effects on sex reversal by feeding treatment of 17α-MT in 60 mg/kg for 28 days (F2) had the highest growth rate in terms of weight, ADG and FCR (0.644 g, 0.022 g/d and 0.714 respectively). The effects on sex reversal by the feeding treatment of 17α-MT in 80 mg/kg for 28 days (F3) had a medial growth rate and the highest survival rate (95.037 %) and sex ratio of males (85.667 %3T). The effects on sex reversal by feeding treatment of 17α-MT in 40 mg/kg for 28 days (FR1R) had a good growth rate but the other factors were minimal3T.

  8. THE EFFECT OF SEASONAL VARIATION AND METEOROLOGICAL DATA ON PM10 CONCENTRATIONS IN NORTHERN THAILAND Download Article

    Pantitcha Outapa and Katiya Ivanovitch
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (46-53)
    • No of Download = 351

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    This study examines emission sources and meteorological data affecting ambient concentrations of pollution haze in Northern Thailand on the basis of particulate matter (PM10) concentrations monitored and collected by Thailand’s Pollution Control Department over a three-year period at thirteen stations in eight provinces. Increasing pollution and its major emission sources have been analyzed to reflect the seasonal variation of meteorological data over the periods of dry and rainy seasons. The results show that daily PM10 concentrations were at their highest levels during the dry season from January to April. In the course of a three-year time span, from 2015 to 2017, almost all monitoring stations recorded average PM10 concentration levels that were approximately 1 to 3 times higher than the Thailand’s daily ambient air quality standard (120 μg/m3). It was also observed that the average PM10 concentrations in areas under study were significantly higher than the average air quality recorded during the rainy season. The meteorological data, including temperature and winds blowing from the southerly and southeasterly directions, were significantly related to the increase of average PM10 concentrations. By contrast, the relative humidity and the wind speed were significantly related with the decrease of average PM10 concentrations. Forest fires and agricultural waste burning have been identified as the major sources of PM10 concentration in each site.

  9. EFFECTS OF AGROCHEMICAL RESIDUES ON AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES IN SEMI-ORGANIC RICE FIELDS Download Article

    Pattira Kasamesiri and Wipavee Thaimuangphol
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (54-58)
    • No of Download = 55

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    This study presents a case study for rice farming change from a conventional to semi-organic process. Alterations of aquatic invertebrate composition and diversity between these two rice farming methods were compared. Aquatic invertebrates were collected in flooded rice fields between August and October 2015. Four phyla comprising 12 taxa were identified with average abundances in conventional and semi-organic samples of 5,717 and 10,676 individuals/m2, respectively, while the Shannon diversity index ranged between 0.45-0.62 and 0.35-0.59, respectively. Evenness index in conventional and semi-organic ranged between 0.26-0.65 and 0.23-0.71 respectively, while the dominant index was highest in semi-organic farming. Water quality parameters as temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were not significantly different between the two farming methods. Contamination occurred from chemical substances remaining in semi-organic rice fields. Abundant pollution indicator species such as Oligochaeta, Chironomidae and Viviparidae suggested pesticide or herbicide contamination from water sources as agrochemical residues persisted from previous conventional rice farming.

  10. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND INSECTICIDAL ACTIVITY OF INDIAN BORAGE ESSENTIAL OIL AGAINST MAIZE WEEVIL Download Article

    Ruchuon Wanna and Jiraporn Krasaetep
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (59-64)
    • No of Download = 177

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    Biopesticide has become more important in stored product pest management, since the use of synthetic insecticides causes adverse effects to human health and the environment. The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and toxicity of essential oil from Indian borage, Plectranthus amboinicu (Lour.), leaves against adults of maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky. The essential oil was investigated by Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) technique. The efficacy of this essential oil against S. zeamais using impregnated filter paper and vapor-phase tests. Experiments were performed under Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 4 replications. Contact toxicity towards maize was investigated at 6 concentrations of essential oil 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 and 25,000 ppm and fumigant activity was performed using bioassay at 6 concentrations including 0 50 100 150 200 and 250 μL/L air. Data were recorded as number of deaths maize weevil from 24 to 168 h. The principal compounds in the oil were carvacrol (40.49%), caryophyllene (16.76%), Ç-terpinene (11.61%), o-Cymene (8.50%), humulene (5.88%), caryophyllene oxide (2.75), p-mentha-1,4(8)-diene (2.17%), and terpinen-4-ol (1.19%). The essential oil of P. amboinicu leaves showed strong contact toxicity at 120 h and fumigant toxicity at 72 h against adults of S. zeamais with 100% adult mortality of 25,000 ppm and 250 μL/L air, respectively. The results indicated that the essential oil of P. amboinicu leaves showed potent for management of S. zeamais population.

  11. SIGNAL ANALYSIS FOR LPG-MODIFIED GASOLINE ENGINE WITH ENGINE FAULTS Download Article

    Suphattharachai Chomphan, Theerathan Kingrattanaset and Saereephap Boonsit
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (65-72)
    • No of Download = 423

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    At the present time, the number of vehicles and the cost of gasoline has been immensely risen, liquefied petroleum (LPG) is a prominent alternative choice of fuel because of its popularity and economical cost. However, the LPG-installation may cause some degradations of the engine efficiency. The important perceptions of the driver are the engine vibration and sound. Therefore, an analysis of vibration signals and sound signals to distinguish between the LPG-modified and the normal oil-usage 2,200-cc engine has been reviewed in the first stage of this paper. The power of the signal is applied for both engines at five different engine speeds. A ten-second sample of the signal has been measured with the sampling rate of 2,048 Hz. The experimental results of the analysis of vibration signals show that the power of signals of the LPG-modified engine is mostly above that of the normal oil-usage engine. As for the analysis of sound signals, the LPG-modified engine has higher power than that of the normal oil-usage engine at low engine speed. Meanwhile, the normal oil-usage engine causes higher power of signals when comparing with the LPG engine at the engine speed over 1,300 rpm. In the second stage, a study of fault simulations has been reviewed. The fault simulations of the butterfly valve and the sparking plug have been studied. The results show that the vibration of the engine is directly proportional to the engine speed. Moreover, the engine faults cause significant engine vibration at the speed above 1,500 rpm for both normal gasoline and LPG modified engines. Last but not least, LPG-installation and engine faults cause degradations in engine efficiency which can be substantially evidenced by using the proposed approach.

  12. ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITOR ACTIVITY OF THE SOYBEAN TEMPEH PROTEIN AS FUNCTIONAL FOOD Download Article

    Sri Yadial Chalid, Sandra Hermanto and Amalia Rahmawati
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (73-78)
    • No of Download = 85

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    Tempeh is an Indonesia’s indigenous fermented food that is widely preferred by the community. Fermented food has functional food as an antihypertensive by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. This study was aimed to measure protein activity of tempeh as ACE inhibitor. Soybean was fermented using Rhizopus sp. with various fermentation times of 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42 and 48 hours. Protein extraction was performed at the isoelectric point, the degree of hydrolysis was considered as trichloroacetic-dissolved nitrogen. The best fermentation time was determined by the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and protein content. Protein extract was fractionated by using an ultra membrane with 3 kDa cut of. Proximate analysis was performed by the AOAC method. The measurement of an ACE inhibitor was based on the formation of hippurate acid-H-Histidyl-L-leucine (HHL). Results of this study revealed that the lipid content of tempeh was lower than that of soybean while the water content of tempeh was higher than soybean. The best fermentation time was found at 24 hours. Protein content was 236.31 ppm and DH was 36.03%. The best fraction that was able to inhibit ACE was a fraction below 3 kDa with an inhibitory capability of 67.43%. Protein of tempeh contained proline, valine, isoleucine, histidine, teonine, tyrosine, leucine, aspartic acid, lysine, glycine, arginine, alanine, phenylalanine, glutamic acid, serine and methionine. This study concludes that tempeh was able to inhibit ACE by in vitro and is potentially continued to in vivo examination, thus tempeh can be claimed as a functional food.

  13. AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK MODEL FOR THE CORROSION CURRENT DENSITY OF STEEL IN MORTAR MIXED WITH SEAWATER Download Article

    Cheryl Lyne C. Roxas and Bernardo A. Lejano
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (79-84)
    • No of Download = 374

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    Corrosion is a very complicated phenomenon in the field of science and engineering. Over the years, several numerical models have been developed to predict the damage caused by the corrosion process. The use of the artificial neural network in modeling corrosion has gained popularity in recent years. Many of the factors affecting corrosion are difficult to control. Thus, the artificial neural network may be a better technique to consider due to its ability to tolerate relatively imprecise, noisy or incomplete data, less vulnerability to outliers, filtering capacity and adaptability. This study aims to generate a corrosion current density prediction model using the artificial neural network approach. Microcell corrosion current density is defined as the rate of corrosion expressed in electric current per unit area of cross-section. Several variables were considered as input variables namely: age, water to cement ratio, cement content, compressive strength, type of mixing water, corrosion potential, solution resistance, and polarization resistance. These variables were entered into the neural network architecture and simulated in MATLAB. The feedforward backpropagation technique was used to generate the best model for the corrosion current density. The best neural network architecture consists of 8 input variable, 8 neurons in the hidden layer and one output variable. The resulting neural network model satisfactorily predicted the corrosion current density with a coefficient of correlation values of 0.96536, 0.80817, and 0.7662 for training, validation and testing phases, respectively.

  14. EFFECT OF SUSPENDING TRAFFIC ON A HIGHWAY IN A MOUNTAINOUS REGION ON THE SUCCESSION OF SLOPE VEGETATION Download Article

    Teruo Arase, Akane Nishio, Tetsuo Okano and Taizo Uchida
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (85-91)
    • No of Download = 347

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    Gonbei Highway, a winding road in a mountainous region in central Japan, was damaged by typhoons in the autumn of 2004, and a 9-km stretch of the highway has remained closed (without being restored). We established 11 survey sites to examine slope vegetation along Gonbei Highway in the summer of 2004 (just before the area was damaged), and we conducted surveys again in 2016 (12 years after the damage), including at 5 survey sites along the closed section of the road. At each survey site, a quadrat (2 m × 5 m) was established on the mountain side and the valley side of the road. The deterioration of the road surface was also observed. Here, we examine the effects of suspending traffic on roadside vegetation and road surface deterioration. Our results showed that succession to arboreal vegetation was not observed at the roadside sites along the closed section of the road: vegetation coverage increased significantly along the closed section with increasing coverage of shrubs (mainly bamboo grass). In contrast, tree seedlings increased in the passable sections. Thus, the suspension of traffic and the subsequent long-term absence of roadside vegetation management allowed bamboo grass to increase, and the community of bamboo grass prevented invasion and growth of tree seedlings. Obvious deterioration of the road surface was not observed, excepting sparse cracks and weed invasion. Consequently, the dominance of bamboo grass may be one of the criteria by which to judge the necessity of vegetation management along roads closed to traffic.

  15. HOLISTIC LANDSCAPE PLANNING`S VALUE FOR NATURAL DISASTER RECONSTRUCTION: WILLINGNESS TO PAY FOR NEW RESIDENCE IN DIFFERENT RECONSTRUCTION PLANNING APPROACHES Download Article

    Misato Uehara
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (92-97)
    • No of Download = 142

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    Practical evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of holistic landscape planning is limited because comprehensive decision-making is misunderstood as depriving individual sectors' authority and budgets. The author compared two municipalities’ difference of recovery speed and the quality of relocation housing; Shinchi town and Soma city, which are this project subjects, had contrasting planning processes from 2011 Japan Earthquake and Tsunami disaster. Shinch town has recovered by bottom-up the planning process and the author's natural disaster risk analysis, which based on 1969's McHarg's landscape planning principle. Whereas, Soma city has recovered by the top-down planning process, which was the same method as other municipalities affected by the tsunami. In this test, 263 students evaluated relocation houses’ prices without any information about differences of the planning process. The author analyzed subjects' attribute data that could potentially affect their evaluation: sex, the environment in childhood, etc. T-test and multiple regression analysis were performed to evaluate the effects of differences of the planning process for the value of the house. Welch's T-test found the mean of relocation residential WTP ($). Shinchi town's house (mean=$185400) was significantly higher than that of Soma city (mean=$157680. t=15.9, p<2.2e-16 (twotailed), d.f.=3622.1), $1=¥100). Multiple linear regression was calculated to predict [WTP], based on [USP:Under Shinchi town planning process] and [VDD:Volunteer or donation to a disaster area]. (Predicted WTP is equal to [150200] + [+27700] ([USP]) + [+8176] ([VDD]). [USP] is coded as [Shinchi:1 or Soma:0], and [VDD] is coded as [Yes:1, No:0].). These findings can help us in recovery planning from disasters. 

  16. INVESTIGATION OF CHANGES IN INDOOR RADON CONCENTRATIONS BEFORE AND AFTER SEISMIC ACTIVITIES IN GYEONGJU AND POHANG, KOREA Download Article

    Hanyoung Joo, Jae Wook Kim and Joo Hyun Moon
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (98-103)
    • No of Download = 105

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    This paper made a continuous measurement of the indoor radon concentrations at a university building in Gyeongju, Rep. of Korea, to check if there is any notable pattern between the indoor radon concentrations and seismic activities. On September 12, 2016, earthquakes with a magnitude of 5.1 and 5.8 consecutively occurred in Gyeongju. 14 months later, an earthquake with a magnitude of 5.5 occurred in Pohang, about 30 km away from Gyeongju, on November 15, 2017. This study investigated the change in the indoor radon concentrations before and after earthquakes to identify if there is any pattern between them and found an interesting pattern. Prior to earthquakes, radon anomalies, which are radon concentration deviating by more than ±2σ from the seasonal average, was usually identified. When 5.0 or greater magnitude earthquakes occurred, the indoor radon concentrations decreased sharply a few days before them, and then continuously increased until the occurrence of the earthquake.

  17. EMBEDDED INTELLIGENCE FOR FAST VERTICAL HANDOVER DECISION AND NETWORK SELECTION IN HETNETS Download Article

    Sunisa Kunarak
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (104-109)
    • No of Download = 387

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    The hybrid artificial neural networks (hybrid ANNs) combined between the learning vector quantization (LVQ) and radial basis function (RBF) for the vertical handover decision algorithm. The development and hardware implementation of this algorithm are presented in the fast vertical handover decision process owing to keep the always best connected (ABC) in heterogeneous networks (HetNets). The LVQ is based on unsupervised learning and also the RBF is suitable for the non-linear data that is considered the Gaussian distribution. The received signal strength indicator (RSSI), bandwidth requirement (BW), mobile speed (MS) and monetary cost (MC) coefficient of service metrics are introduced the inputs of hybrid ANNs using field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) logical architecture design. In addition, VLSI hardware description language (VHDL) is described the hybrid architecture. The heterogeneous wireless networks are cooperated the WCDMA, Advanced LTE and WLAN, respectively. The experimental results, the proposed algorithm that is illustrated the high correlation by simulating with MATLAB program, outperforms compared with other approaches as the learning vector quantization and radial basis function. Also, the FPGA can increase the computation time compared to the standard personal computer (PC) so that the FPGA is proper the real time and non-real time applications for the future wireless communication system.

  18. GREEN CARGO MOVEMENT, LOCALITY: MEKONG REGION ACROSS LOCALITIES Download Article

    Leonard Johnstone and Vatanavongs Ratanavaraha
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (110-117)
    • No of Download = 213

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    There is an issue in the identification of commonality across several localities associated with the problem of cargo movement via modes of transport other than the road. The approach in this paper considers movement from the locality of the multi-jurisdiction of the Mekong Region, an agglomeration of Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, Cambodia, and southern China. A mathematical approach was developed to analyze the impact of cargo movement away from the road transport sector to greener alternative rail mode. The analytical appreciation is considered from the review of large-scale cargo movement across the region. Results from the data analysis are indicative of an environmentally friendly or a green freight alternative. The mathematical model described in this paper is used to consider freight modal shifts under various infrastructure development scenarios. The outcome from the analysis results is the input into ongoing research to identify common mathematical functions across other jurisdictions. The conclusion is that there is a likelihood that common mathematical procedures are applicable in several localities.

  19. DETERMINATION OF MAXIMUM BOD LOAD USING WATER QUALITY MODELING OF UPSTREAM CITARUM RIVER Download Article

    Yonik Meilawati Yustiani, Sri Wahyuni and Syarifah Nur Fitria Dewi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (118-122)
    • No of Download = 325

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    Citarum River as the largest river in West Java gives an important role for the life of the community either directly or indirectly. However, the pollution that occurs on the Citarum River is very high that its tributary water cannot be used properly. One of the efforts to rehabilitate the quality of the Citarum River is by utilizing the water quality modeling. The purpose of this study was to obtain the maximum BOD values that can be accepted by the Citarum River for the rehabilitation purpose. The modeling prepared in this research was using the Streeter-Phelps equation. The data analyzed in this study is derived from the West Java Province Government monitoring sampling in 2013, 2014 and 2015. Sampling area covers Dayeuhkolot area to Nanjung. The calculation result using Streeter Phelps equation provides the concentration value of deficit oxygen and BOD load. The deficit oxygen calculated by the model shows its concentration was ranging between 3.20 mg/L and 3.68 mg/L, while the maximum BOD load concentration is ranging between 8.06 mg/L and 23.83 mg/L. Using this value, the government can create a strategy for managing the Citarum River so that its water quality can be returned in accordance with its designation.

  20. TURBIDITY REDUCTION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF PILOT SCALE ELECTROCOAGULATION DEVICES Download Article

    Evi Afiatun, Hary Pradiko and Evan Fabian
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (123-128)
    • No of Download = 125

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    A preliminary study to reduce the turbidity of drinking water by electrocoagulation method has been previously investigated. Subsequent studies were then conducted with various turbidity and initial precipitation treatments. Cikapundung River and Cisangkuy River are the main drinking water sources in Bandung with very fluctuating turbidity. In the water supply system, turbidity is one of the important factors to be observed due to several reasons such as aesthetic, consideration of load to filtration, and disinfection process. This study aims to apply the electrocoagulation process to reduce turbidity as an alternative to conventional coagulation system by utilizing Poly Aluminum Chloride (PAC). Electrocoagulation is one method of water treatment by combining the process of coagulation, flotation and electrochemistry. In this work, the electrocoagulation experiments were set up by varying the current density from 10-30 volts with 5-30 minutes detention time so that the turbidity variation could be created in a range of 25 Nephelometric Turbidity Unit (NTU) up to 400 NTU. In addition, the experiments were carried out by a precipitation process prior to the electrocoagulation process. The optimum conditions of the electrocoagulation process with both initial and non-precipitated depositions occurred at initial turbidity of 400 NTU with electrocoagulation time and with a 100 RPM fast stirring for 10 minutes to have a turbidity reduction of 99.52% and 98.28 %. The optimum current density for non-precipitating conditions was 21.33 A / m2, whereas it is with precipitating of 46.22 A / m2. This optimum condition is useful for a pilot scale development.

  21. EFFICIENCY OF INDIAN BORAGE ESSENTIAL OIL AGAINST COWPEA BRUCHIDS Download Article

    Ruchuon Wanna and Phanthiwa Kwang-Ngoen
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (129-134)
    • No of Download = 87

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    Cowpea bruchids is one of the most important insect pests in stored products, especially of whole grains used for breeding or consumption. Currently, synthetic insecticides cause adverse effects to human health and the environment, thus new alternative biopesticides from herb or plant are needed for cowpea bruchids control. The aim of this research was to evaluate insecticidal activities of essential oil from Indian borage, Plectranthus amboinicus. Efficacy of this essential oil against C. maculatus was investigated by impregnated filter paper and vapor-phase tests. Experiments were conducted under Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 4 replications. Contact activity was considered on essential oil at 6 concentrations of 0 300 600 900 1,200 and 1,500 ppm and fumigant activity was performed at 6 concentrations including 0 3 6 9 12 and 15 μL/L air. All experiments were assessed under laboratory conditions (30±2ºC, 70-80%RH and 16L:8D photoperiods). Data of deaths cowpea bruchids were recorded after treated at 24 to 168 h. Contact activity showed 1,200 ppm of P. amboinicus essential oil at 168 h was the best performance in the contact toxicity on cowpea bruchids and fumigation activity presented 12 μL/L air of P. amboinicus essential oil at 72 h had the highest effectiveness in the fumigation toxicity on cowpea bruchids, with 100% adult mortality. The data pointed that P. amboinicus essential oil showed the high potential for insecticidal activity for cowpea bruchids control. Hence, the essential oil of P. amboinicus might be used as an alternative for grain protection against stored-product insects.

  22. WATER QUALITY ASSESMENT BASED ON THE WATER QUALITY INDEX (WQI) APPROACH USING GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS Download Article

    Rina Febrina and Abu Bakar Sambah
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (135-140)
    • No of Download = 321

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    Water quality refers to the chemical, physical, or biological characteristics of water, in which assessing the condition of water relative to the requirements of biotic species or to any human purposes. The aim of this study was to analyze the water quality of the Way Kuripan River based on the Water Quality Index (WQI) calculation method. Water samples were taken from five different areas (WK01, WK02, WK03, WK04 and WK05). WQI was calculated on the basis of six parameters; dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH, total suspended solid (TSS) and ammoniacnitrogen (NH3-N). The calculation started by identifying the equation of the Sub-Index (SI) based on the parameter value, calculating the Sub-Index (SI) of each parameter, and calculating the Water Quality Index. The results show that WK01 and WK04 have WQI values of 70.3 and 70.11. Those values show that water quality of the Way Kuripan River was in class III or slightly polluted. WK02 (WQI = 55.8) and WK03 (WQI=53.8) were highly polluted. The lowest WQI of the Way Kuripan River was in WK05 = 38.3, and classified as Class V (highly polluted). Moreover, Geospatial analysis was done to identify the distribution of water quality geographically. It shows that home industry and human activities, were spread along the river flow, and it caused the fluctuation of water quality. The results of this study can be used as a reference by the local government for water resources management. 

  23. NITRIDING OF PURE TITANIUM BY HIGH DENSITY PLASMA USING H2-N2 GAS MIXTURE AT LOW TEMPERATURE Download Article

    Dionysius Joseph Djoko Herry Santjojo, Maharani Suci Rajapadni, Masruroh and Setyawan Purnomo Sakti
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (141-146)
    • No of Download = 289

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    Most plasma nitriding of titanium was successfully carried out at a temperature higher than 500 ºC. A lower temperature process is needed to save energy. The experiment was carried out by varying the substrate temperature from 350 to 450 ºC. The plasma was generated in a vacuum chamber by a 2 MHz RF power supply. A gas mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen was introduced into the chamber resulted in a significantly effective nitriding of the titanium. The plasma was intensified to a higher density by utilizing a combination of DC bias technique and a hollow cathode. At the optimum mixture of 80% N2 and 20% H2, by the pressure of 35 Pa, a four-hour nitriding resulted in a 20 μm nitrided layer. The hardness of the treated surface was varied between 550 and 1990 HV depending on the process temperature. XRD measurements showed that the nitriding leads to the formation of Ti2N and TiN precipitates. Expansion of the original hcp-structured lattices was also noticed. The hardening was a result of a lattice straining induced by the precipitates and also a possible small percentage of nitrogen solid-solution.

  24. EFFECTS OF ACIDIC ELECTROLYZED WATER WITH DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES ON MICROBIAL CONTROL AND QUALITY OF FRESH-CUT BANANA LEAVES DURING STORAGE Download Article

    Varumporn Kuljaroensub, Kanda Whangchai and Usawadee Chanasut
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (147-152)
    • No of Download = 185

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    The effects of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) on microbial control and quality of fresh-cut banana leaves during storage were studied. Fresh-cut banana leaves cv. Tanee (TN) and cv. Klauay Namwa (KN) were sanitized with either 4°C or 27+2°C of 50 ppm acidic AEW for various times (10, 20 and 30 minutes). The sanitized sample was packed in polyethylene (PE) bag and storage at 5+2◦C for 7 days, before transferred to 27+2°C to evaluate their shelf-life. The results showed that sanitization with 4°C and 27+2°C of AEW for 30 minutes were completely eliminated the microorganism on fresh-cut samples from both cultivars. Nevertheless, these contact time had the highest loss of more than 78% after 5 days at room temperature. Sanitized samples with AEW for 20 and 30 minutes effectively delayed the microbial growth, therefore the amount of microorganism remained below EU Regulation (EC) No. 2073/2005 criteria after storage. The shelf-life of fresh-cut samples was 13 days and terminated after their visual appearance such as yellowing or browning occurred. Fresh-cut samples sanitization with both treatments had similar quality changes such as color changes and chlorophyll contents. However, sanitization with 4°C AEW had lower weight loss than those of with 27°C AEW during storage at room temperature. It also effectively reduced the microorganism on fresh-cut samples and had the lowest loss which was 22%. Therefore, sanitization with 4°C AEW for 20 minutes was an appropriate method to sanitized fresh-cut banana leaves for both cultivars.

  25. ESTIMATION OF GROUNDWATER RECHARGE AND SALINIZATION IN A COASTAL ALLUVIAL PLAIN AND OSAKA MEGACITY, JAPAN, USING δ18O, δD, AND Cl− Download Article

    Yusuke Tomozawa, Shin-ichi Onodera and Mitsuyo Saito
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (153-158)
    • No of Download = 254

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    Seawater intrusion and salinization are the most common problems of water pollution in coastal groundwater. To clarify the process of groundwater salinization in a coastal alluvial plain, we estimated the groundwater recharge and salinization process in Osaka coastal groundwater using δ18O, δD, and Cl−. Water samples were collected at 14 boreholes of 9 plots with depth of −5 to −60 m amsl in March 2015. The δ18O values and Cl− concentrations of the groundwater varied spatially from −6.4 ‰ to −4.7 ‰ and 17 mg/L to 5193 mg/L, respectively. Based on Cl− concentrations, the maximum mixing ratio of seawater with the concentration of 1800 mg/L into groundwater was estimated to be 29% about 3 km inland from the shoreline at the depth of about −40 m. The relationship between δ18O and Cl− of groundwater and seawater indicated three types of end members: seawater with high Cl− and δ18O, a groundwater source with lower Cl− and lower δ18O (−5.6 ‰), and a groundwater source with lower Cl− and the lowest δ18O (−7.2 ‰). According to the relationship between the altitude of groundwater recharge and δ18O established by previous research, two types of groundwater recharge and source areas were estimated to be coastal lowland and upland with altitudes <10 m amsl and surrounding hill 18 km inland from the shoreline with altitudes of 100 m amsl.

  26. CHANGE OF MOTORCYCLE SPEED UNDER SPEED ENFORCEMENT CAMERA ON URBAN ARTERIAL IN KHON KAEN CITY, THAILAND Download Article

    Jetsada Kumphong, Thaned Satiennam, Wichuda Satiennam and Supakorn Tirapat
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (159-164)
    • No of Download = 175

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    Road traffic injuries tend to become more serious all over the world as well as the number of road fatalities, serious injuries that lead to disabilities, which is also increasing. Speeding is one of the top causes of death and injury. At present, Thai law has limited the speed in urban areas at 80 km/h for passenger cars and motorcycles. This speed limit is too high for motorcyclists to prevent injury and fatality in case of an accident. The objective of this study is to explore the change of speed of motorcycles after the installation of speed enforcement cameras. The speeds of motorcycles before and after the installation of speed enforcement cameras were collected by applying spot speed method at 28 points along the project corridor. The change of speeds was analyzed using t-test at 95% confidence level. As a result, the 85th percentile speed of motorcycles significantly decreased after the installation of a speed enforcement camera, whereas the mean speed of motorcycles was constant.

  27. THE POTENTIAL OF TROPICAL MICROALGAE AS FLOCCULANT IN HARVESTING PROCESS Download Article

    Astri Rinanti and Ronny Purwadi
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (165-170)
    • No of Download = 48

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    This environmental biotechnology research aims to obtain a diversity of freshwater tropical microalgae which has the ability to form a floc naturally to be utilized as bioflocculants in the process of harvesting other tropical microalgae biomass that does not have such ability. The microalgae Chlorella vulgaris, Chlorella sorokiniana, Chlorococcum sp., Closterium sp., Oscilatoria sp., Monorapidhium sp, Ankistrodesmus sp. and Scenedesmus obliquus are cultivated in batch culture and their environmental condition is controlled at 25°C, fed with 5% pure CO2 with a flow rate of 5 L/min. To determine the ability of microalgae strain as microalgae flocculant or not, it is necessary to calculate recovery efficiency. The addition of Scenedesmus obliquus and Ankistrodesmus sp. as flocculant microalgae followed by slow mixing allows better interaction between flocculant microalgae and non-flocculant microalgae, so the floc size increases. Scenedesmus obliquus and Ankistrodesmus sp. can be used as flocculant species because the value of settling for both types of microalgae is more than 50% for 60 minutes while other microalgae species can be categorized as non-flocculant microalgae since within 60 minutes settles less than 50%. The study also proved that no greenhouse gas was formed during the bioflocculation process. Thus the method of bioflocculation with Scenedesmus obliquus and Ankistrodesmus sp. is feasible to be applied to harvest microalgae biomass on an industrial scale.

  28. ENHANCEMENT OF METHANE PRODUCTION FROM ALKALINE PRETREATED POLY (LACTIC ACID) WASTE BY THE CO-DIGESTION PROCESS Download Article

    Sutisa Samitthiwetcharong and Orathai Chavalparit
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (171-176)
    • No of Download = 276

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    The objectives of this research were to evaluate the biomethane production yield from the anaerobic co-digestion process and biodegradation potential of the post-consumer plastic waste made from Polylactic acid (PLA). The PLA waste was pretreated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and further utilized as a co-digestion substrate, along with organic waste. The potential of alkaline pre-treatment and co-digestion of PLA with food waste and market waste for methane production was investigated. The continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) feed batch was carried out on the laboratory scale. The results from the CSTR test revealed that the utilization of pre-treated PLA as a single substrate could produce biomethane for 148 L/kgVSadded. The co-digestion of pre-treated PLA with market waste could enhance biomethane production yield as high as 282.7 L/kgVSadded. Biomethane production obtained from co-digestion of pre-treated PLA with food waste was 211.6 L/kgVSadded, which was 1.6 times higher than utilizing the food waste alone.

  29. PERFORMANCE OF AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEM IN EDUCATIONAL BUILDING FOR ENERGY CONSERVATION Download Article

    Nantamol Limphitakphong, Nuttasate Chaikatetham, Therdthai Khaimook and Orathai Chavalparit
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (177-182)
    • No of Download = 193

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    Nowadays, the building sector has played an important role in global energy consumption. In Thailand, about half of energy used in building is generally supplied for cooling systems. The objective of this study, therefore, is to investigate the environmental performance of an air-conditioning (AC) system for an educational building and to propose strategies for mitigating GHG through energy efficiency measures toward campus-wide sustainable energy policy. The results of this building case study demonstrate that the existing AC system consumes about 70% of total energy consumption. As a consequence of the low energy efficiency of the existing AC system, the whole building’s performance has failed to meet the standard of Thai’s building energy code. To improve building energy efficiency, aside from replacing the current AC system with a highefficiency AC system that would be needed, implementing alternative energy conservation measures, for instance changing window panes, walls, and roof tile materials and installing thermal insulation, were proposed to quantify the amount of energy savings as well as GHG emissions reductions. The findings will be useful for building owners, architects and policymakers as a guideline for demonstrating a building’s energy-efficiency. 

  30. IDENTIFICATION OF SUITABLE LOCATION FOR EXPANSION OF FISH AGGREGATING DEVICES (FADs) FOR FISHERMEN ON PACITAN OPEN SEA, INDONESIA Download Article

    Tuty Handayani, Cinthia, Jarot Mulyo Semedi and Sajiharjo Marto Suro
    • Article Type: Research Article
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    • Pages (183-190)
    • No of Download = 103

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    Pacitan Regency is located on the southern coast of East Java Province, Indonesia. The coastal area of Pacitan consists of a bay and open sea. Fishermen often catch fish with destructive fishing methods. FADs is a tool to increase fisheries production which is placed in a definite location. The purposes of this study were to find out the suitable area to expand FADs, to recognize the characteristics of fishermen, and to find out the benefits and readiness of Pacitan fishermen in using FADs. Fisheries production data was collected using interview techniques for fishermen and boats owners. The method for obtaining suitable location of FADs by using Geographical Information System (GIS) and remote sensing techniques. Parameters of temperature, pH, salinity, current and turbidity using Landsat 8 Image. While for chlorophyll-a by using NOAA imagery. Depth was obtained from the bathymetric map. The results showed that about 70% of sea in front of Pacitan coast is suitable for FADs expansion. In fact, only 10% of local Pacitan fishermen use Deep Sea FADs, and 10% use Shallow Sea FADs. Most FADs users in Pacitan are migrants. Development of Shallow Sea FADs is more profitable for local fishermen, because they can carry out one day fishing, low costs and reduce destructive fishing.

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