• Arif Ali Baig Moghal
  • Syed Abu Sayeed Mohammed
  • Mosleh Ali Al-Shamrani


Adsorption, Calcium, Desorption, Kinetics, Radioactivity, Strontium, Solubility, Toxicity


Strontium is mostly present in oil, coal, soil and rocks in the form of isotopes of four types 84Sr,
86Sr, 87Sr and 88Sr. It resembles the chemical form of calcium and even replaces the position in bones and other
places where calcium finds its importance in the human or animal body. Strontium, if exchanged with calcium
in greater quantity, can cause serious effects like cancer in bone and its neighbouring tissues and necrotic
lesions. However, the effect is negligible when the exchange is lesser. If present in the geo-environment,
strontium compounds in both forms stable or radioactive percolates in the groundwater, but a majority of this
compound present in soil remains undisturbed for a considerable amount of time. The permissible amount of
strontium which can be acceptable in water according to the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)
is 4 mg L1
. Further presence of strontium up to 240 mg kg1
in soil is considered as less toxic to grownups not
suffering from malnutrition. Anthropogenic and natural activities leading to the release of strontium in the
atmosphere pose a chance of transportation and deposition by the wet deposition method. The natural treatment
of strontium by biodegradation or hydrolysis does not decay atoms of strontium due to its form. This paper
deals with the chemical and physical properties and toxico-kinetics of strontium. Moreover, few points
pertaining to health of flora and fauna when it is in direct contact with strontium and the safety concerns with
relevant regulations are discussed.




How to Cite

Arif Ali Baig Moghal, Syed Abu Sayeed Mohammed, & Mosleh Ali Al-Shamrani. (2019). STATE-OF-THE-ART REVIEW ON STRONTIUM TOXICOKINETICS, MECHANISTIC RESPONSE, ALTERATIONS AND REGULATIONS . GEOMATE Journal, 16(53), 204–214. Retrieved from

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