@article{Jim Shiau_Mathew Sams_2017, title={ESTIMATION OF TUNNELING INDUCED GROUND SETTLEMENT USING PRESSURE RELAXATION METHOD}, volume={13}, url={https://geomatejournal.com/geomate/article/view/2920}, abstractNote={<p>The prediction of ground settlement caused by tunnelling is frequently estimated using a specified tunnel volume loss, and by applying a semi-empirical method involving the Gaussian equation, and relying on engineer’s experiences. One of the key parameters in the semi-empirical method, <em>K</em>, is generally estimated using basic soil classifications, which has the potential to lead to inaccurate judgement from engineers. Better estimation of this constant <em>K</em> has had limited attention by other studies. This research uses a force relaxation technique and the finite difference program, FLAC, to estimate the transverse settlement profile for a range of different scenarios. A number of particular cases are numerically simulated with variation in the factors that influence the tunnel transverse settlement including tunnel depth to diameter ratios (<em>C/D</em>), clay strength ratios (<em>γD/S<sub>u</sub></em>), Young’s Modulus (<em>E</em>), and volume loss (% of tunnel). Using these settlement profiles, a <em>K</em> parameter can be accurately fitted for each case. Results from this study compare favourably with previous empirical and analytical studies. A range of <em>K</em> values is proposed for any combination of soil strength, Young’s Modulus, tunnel geometry, and volume loss.</p>}, number={39}, journal={GEOMATE Journal}, author={Jim Shiau and Mathew Sams}, year={2017}, month={Nov.}, pages={132–139} }