UTILIZATION OF ACTIVATED CARBON FROM PALM KERNEL SHELLS AS THE BIOADSORBENT OF LEAD WASTE
Keywords:Palm kernel shell charcoal, Pb (II), Activated carbon, Pyrolysis, Liquid smoke
This research aimed to evaluate the use of palm kernel shells for activated carbon to adsorb lead (Pb) ions. The pyrolysis was performed on oil palm kernel shells at a temperature of 380oC to obtain charcoal which was reduced using a ball mill. The charcoal was then chemically activated with liquid smoke. Before and after activation, the sample of charcoal was assessed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The activated carbon was then used to adsorb Pb (II) ions in concentrations of 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 mg/L. The adsorption process was performed in a batch reactor with contact times of 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 minutes at an agitation speed of 150 rpm. The initialconcentration of Pb (II) ions and concentration after adsorption were determined with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Research has shown that initial concentrations and contact times affect the efficiency of Pb (II) removal. The highest adsorption efficiency (> 90%) was obtained at a contact time of 150 minutes and an initial concentration of 60 mg/L. Pb adsorption onto the activated carbon of palm kernel shells demonstrated best fit with both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Kinetics studies showed that the pseudo first-order reaction was more suitable (R² = 0.9359).