CHARACTERIZATION OF PHYSICALLY AND CHEMICALLY ACTIVATED CARBON DERIVED FROM PALM KERNEL SHELLS
Keywords:Activated Carbon, Palm Kernel Shells, Activation, SEM, XRD, FTIR
This research aimed to characterize the physically and chemically activated carbons derived from charred palm kernel shells pyrolyzed at 400°C for 3 h in a slow pyrolysis batch reactor. The pyrolysis products were liquid smoke, charcoal, and tar. For the physical activation, the charcoal was carbonized at 600°C for 3 h in a furnace. For the chemical activation, 0.1 M NaOH, 0.1 M HCl, and 3% liquid smoke were used as activators (impregnation time: 24 h). The activated carbons were subsequently characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The results indicated that the activated carbons met the Indonesian Industry Standard No. 0258-88. The chemical pore size: 287.9 nm–3.965 μm). The XRD analysis showed a broad peak at 2θ = 22.76°, indicating the formation of a SiO2 amorphous structure. The FTIR analysis results indicated that the absorption patterns of the activated carbons demonstrated the presence of the functional groups O–H, C=O, C–H, and C=C; the presence of O–H and C–O indicated that the activated carbons were polar. The NaOH-activated carbon was then used to adsorb cadmium ions in a semi-continuously packed bed column, and it demonstrated a removal efficiency of 38%.